Category: Transfer Pricing Guidelines

Transfer pricing guidelines for application of the arm’s length principle is provided by the OECD, UN, EU and by local Countries.

Countries are encouraged to follow commonly agreed guidelines for application of the arm’s length principle in their domestic transfer pricing practices, and taxpayers are encouraged to follow guidelines in evaluating for tax purposes whether their transfer pricing complies with the arm’s length principle.

Guidelines agreed between countries also govern the resolution of transfer pricing cases in mutual agreement proceedings between countries and, where appropriate, arbitration proceedings.

UN Manual on Transfer Pricing - draft update on Financial Transactions and Profit Splits

UN Manual on Transfer Pricing – draft update on Financial Transactions and Profit Splits

A new version of the UN Practical Manual on Transfer Pricing for Developing Countries is due by 2021. According to the mandate the new manual will make further improvements in usability and practical relevance, updates and improvements to existing text, including on Country Practices (Part D) and will have new content, in particular, on financial transactions; profit splits, centralized procurement functions and comparability issues. A draft paper was published 8 April 2019 containing further guidance on: • Financial Transactions (Attachment A); • Profit Splits (Attachment B); and • Establishing Transfer Pricing Capability, Risk Assessment and Transfer Pricing Audits (Attachment C). 2019 Update-UN-Practical-Manual-on-Transfer-Pricing Share: ... Continue to full case
New Beneficial Ownership Toolkit will help tax administrations tackle tax evasion more effectively

New Beneficial Ownership Toolkit will help tax administrations tackle tax evasion more effectively

A beneficial ownership toolkit was released 20. May 2019 in the context of the OECD’s Global Integrity and Anti-Corruption Forum. The toolkit, prepared by the Secretariat of the OECD’s Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes in partnership with the Inter-American Development Bank, is intended to help governments implement the Global Forum’s standards on ensuring that law enforcement officials have access to reliable information on who the ultimate beneficial owners are behind a company or other legal entity so that criminals can no longer hide their illicit activities behind opaque legal structures. The toolkit was developed to support Global Forum members and in particular developing countries because the current beneficial ownership standard does not provide a specific method for implementing it. The toolkit covers a variety of important issues regarding beneficial ownership, including: the concepts of beneficial owners and ownership, the ... Continue to full case
The EU Anti Tax Avoidance Package - Anti Tax Avoidance Directives (ATAD I & II) and Other Measures

The EU Anti Tax Avoidance Package – Anti Tax Avoidance Directives (ATAD I & II) and Other Measures

Anti Tax Avoidance measures are now beeing implemented across the EU with effect as of 1 January 2019. The EU Anti Tax Avoidance Package (ATAP) was issued by the European Commission in 2016 to counter tax avoidance behavior of MNEs in the EU and to align tax payments with value creation. The package includes the Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive, an amending Directive as regards hybrid mismatches with third countries, and four Other measures. ATAD I The Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive (ATAD), COUNCIL DIRECTIVE (EU) 2016/1164 of 12 July 2016, introduces five anti-abuse measures, against tax avoidance practices that directly affect the functioning of the internal market. 1) Interest Limitation Rule  – Reduce profitshifting via exessive interest payments (Article 4) 2) Exit Taxation – Prevent tax motivated movement of valuable business assets (eg. intangibles) across borders (Article 5) 3) General Anti-Avoidance Rule (GAAR) – Discourage Artificial Arrangements (Article 6) 4) Controlled Foreign Company (CFC) – ... Continue to full case
Marketing and Procurement Hubs - Tax Avoidance

Marketing and Procurement Hubs – Tax Avoidance

The Australian Taxation Office has issued new guidance for multinational groups using offshore marketing- and procurment hubs for tax avoidance purposes. The guidance adresses tax schemes where MNEs uses offshore hubs to shift profits and thereby avoid Australian taxes. Offshore hub arrangements are catagorised by the ATO as white, green, blue, yellow, amber, or red – based on the risk assesment for tax purposes of the transfer pricing setup. The new guidance is a result of recent Australian investigations and hearings into tax avoidance schemes used by Multinational Groups. Tax avoidance in Australia Australian Senate Hearings into Tax Avoidance The overall framework for Australian risk assessment for tax purposes of MNE’s offshore marketing- and procurement hubs is shown below: Share: ... Continue to full case
New Zealand introduces Group Rating Approach for certain Cross-Border relatet party Borrowing and Debt Arrangements

New Zealand introduces Group Rating Approach for certain Cross-Border relatet party Borrowing and Debt Arrangements

The OECD’s final report on interest limitation rules notes that thin capitalisation rules are vulnerable to loans with excessive interest rates and many transfer pricing practicioneres finds that transfer pricing may not the most effective way to prevent profit-shifting using high-priced related party debt. Related-party transactions are fundamentally different to third-party transactions. Factors that increase the riskiness of a loan between unrelated-parties (such as whether the debt can be converted into shares or the total indebtedness of the borrower) are less relevant in a related-party context. In New Zealand new rules on pricing of cross-border borrowing and debt has been implemented according to which interest deductions can be restricted. Questions asked under the new rules: Draft guidance on these rules was issued by the New Zealands Inland Revenue in August 2018. New Zealand 2018-sr-beps-interest-limitation Share: ... Continue to full case
Guidance for Tax Administrations on the Application of Guidance on Hard-to-Value Intangibles

Guidance for Tax Administrations on the Application of Guidance on Hard-to-Value Intangibles

A new report from the OECD contains guidance for tax administration on the application of the approach to hard-to-value intangibles (HTVI), under BEPS Action 8. This new guidance present the principles that should underlie the application of the HTVI approach by tax administration, with the aim of improving consistency and reduce the risk of economic double taxation. The new guidance also includes a number of examples clarifying the application of the HTVI approach in different scenarios; and addresses the interaction between the HTVI approach and the access to the mutual agreement procedure under the applicable tax treaty. guidance-for-tax-administrations-on-the-application-of-the-approach-to-hard-to-value-intangibles-BEPS-action-8 Share: ... Continue to full case
Revised guidance on the profit split method from the OECD

Revised guidance on the profit split method from the OECD

June 2018 the OECD released revised guidance on the profit split method. The new guidance will be incorporated into the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines, replacing the previous text on the transactional profit split method in Chapter II. The revised guidance retains the basic premise that the profit split method should be applied where it is found to be the most appropriate method to the case at hand, but it significantly expands the guidance available to help determine when that may be the case. It also contains more guidance on how to apply the method, as well as numerous examples. revised-guidance-on-the-application-of-the-transactional-profit-split-method-beps-action-10 Share: ... Continue to full case
EU Transparency on Income Allocation and Tax Arrangements - DAC 1 to 6

EU Transparency on Income Allocation and Tax Arrangements – DAC 1 to 6

Tax authorities in the EU have agreed to cooperate more closely and exchange information so as to be able to apply their taxes correctly and combat tax fraud and tax evasion. Exchange of Information within the EU is based on Council Directive 2011/16/EU. The Directive and the later amendments in DAC 2 – 6 provides for exchange of information in three forms: spontaneous, automatic and on request. Spontaneous exchange of information takes place if a country discovers information on possible tax evasion relevant to another country, which is either the country of the income source or the country of residence. Exchange of information on request is used when additional information for tax purposes is needed from another country. Automatic exchange of information (AEOI) is activated in a cross-border situation, where a taxpayer is active in another country than the country of residence. In such cases tax administrations provide automatically tax ... Continue to full case
Additional guidance on the attribution of profits to permanent establishments

Additional guidance on the attribution of profits to permanent establishments

The OECD has released additional guidance on the attribution of profits to permanent establishments. This additional guidance sets out high-level general principles for the attribution of profits to permanent establishments arising under Article 5(5), in accordance with applicable treaty provisions, and includes examples of a commissionnaire structure for the sale of goods, an online advertising sales structure, and a procurement structure. It also includes additional guidance related to permanent establishments created as a result of the changes to Article 5(4), and provides an example on the attribution of profits to permanent establishments arising from the anti-fragmentation rule included in Article 5(4.1). See also the 2008 Guidance and 2010 Guidance. additional-guidance-attribution-of-profits-to-permanent-establishments-BEPS-action-7 Share: ... Continue to full case
OECD Model Tax Convention 2017

OECD Model Tax Convention 2017

A new 2017 edition of the OECD Model Tax Convention has been released today, incorporating significant changes developed under the OECD/G20 project to address base erosion and profit (BEPS). The OECD Model Tax Convention, a model for countries concluding bilateral tax conventions, plays a crucial role in removing tax related barriers to cross border trade and investment. It is the basis for negotiation and application of bilateral tax treaties between countries, designed to assist business while helping to prevent tax evasion and avoidance. The OECD Model also provides a means for settling on a uniform basis the most common problems that arise in the field of international double taxation. The 2017 edition of the OECD Model mainly reflects a consolidation of the treaty-related measures resulting from the work on the OECD/G20 BEPS Project under Action 2 (Neutralising the Effects of Hybrid Mismatch Arrangements), Action 6 ... Continue to full case
OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines 2017 - New version

OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines 2017 – New version

OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines 2017 – New version The OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprise and Tax Administrations provide guidance on the application of the “arm’s length principle”, which is the international consensus on transfer pricing, i.e. on the valuation for tax purposes of cross-border transactions between associated enterprises. In a global economy where multinational enterprises (MNEs) play a prominent role, transfer pricing continues to be high on the agenda of tax administrations and taxpayers alike. Governments need to ensure that the taxable profits of MNEs are not artificially shifted out of their jurisdiction and that the tax base reported by MNEs in their country reflects the economic activity undertaken therein. For taxpayers, it is essential to limit the risks of economic double taxation that may result from a dispute between two countries on the determination of the arm’s length remuneration for their cross-border transactions ... Continue to full case
United Nations, April 2017,  New Manual on Transfer Pricing

United Nations, April 2017, New Manual on Transfer Pricing

The second edition of the United Nations Practical Manual on Transfer Pricing for Developing Countries (TP Manual) was published on the 7th of April 2017. The TP Manual now includes, in response to comments and requests: (i) a new chapter on intra-group services; (ii) a new chapter on cost contribution arrangements; (iii) a new chapter on the treatment of intangibles; (iv) significant updating of other chapters; and (iv) an index to make the contents more easily accessible (to be included in the hard copy). The revised TP Manual also takes into consideration the outputs of the G20/OECD BEPS Project, including providing revised guidance on documentation, comparability analysis, and bringing in an additional section on commodity transactions in the Methods chapter (also known as “the sixth method” – drawn from developing country practice). Share: ... Continue to full case
EU JTPF, March 2017, Report on the Use of Comparables in the EU

EU JTPF, March 2017, Report on the Use of Comparables in the EU

In March 2017 the JTPF agreed the Report on the Use of Comparables in the EU. The report establishes best practices and pragmatic solutions by issuing various recommendations for both taxpayers and tax administrations in the EU and aims at increasing in practice the objectivity and transparency of comparable searches for transfer pricing. JTPF-comparables-October-2016 Share: ... Continue to full case

Guidance on the attribution of profits to permanent establishments 2010

On 22 July 2010 a new report on the attribution of profits to permanent establishments was published. The 2008 Report will serve as background guidance to the 2008 revised Commentary‘s interpretation of the pre-2010 Article 7 for as long as bilateral tax treaties that are based on the text of that version of Article 7 are in force. However, because the 2008 Report included a number of references to the text of the pre-2010 Article 7, and because the Committee revised the text of Article 7 in the 2010 update to the Model Tax Convention, the Committee believed it would be advisable to prepare a modified version of the 2008 Report which would delete obsolete references to the text of the pre-2010 Article 7 and which would align the Report‘s wording with the wording of the new Article 7, thus making the modified Report available as a future reference for guidance on ... Continue to full case

Guidance on the attribution of profits to permanent establishments 2008

On 17 July 2008, the OECD Council approved the release the Report on the Attribution of Profits to Permanent Establishments . The Report includes a preface and four Parts. Part I sets out general considerations for attributing profits to permanent establishments, regardless of the business sector in which they operate. Part II describes the application of the approach to enterprises carrying on a banking business through a permanent establishment. Part III addresses the situation of permanent establishments of enterprises carrying on global trading in financial instruments. Part IV deals with the application of the approach to PE of enterprises carrying on insurance activities. REPORT-ON-THE-ATTRIBUTION-OF-PROFITS-TO-PE-2008 Share: ... Continue to full case
OECD's Manual on Effective Mutual Agreement Procedures (MEMAP)

OECD’s Manual on Effective Mutual Agreement Procedures (MEMAP)

The OECD Manual on Effective Mutual Agreement Procedures (MEMAP) is part of a broader project to improve the functioning of existing international tax dispute procedures and to develop supplementary dispute resolution mechanisms. More information about the project, the proposed supplementary dispute resolution mechanism, and other suggested improvements to the Mutual Agreement Procedures (MAP) process can be found at www.oecd.org under Dispute Resolution. The Manual is intended as a guide to increase awareness of the MAP process and how it should function. It will provide tax administrations and taxpayers with basic information on the operation of MAP and identify best practices for MAP without imposing a set of binding rules upon Member countries. The following points are important elements to consider in understanding the status of the manual and its interaction with other OECD guidance: The manual does not, and is not intended to, modify, restrict ... Continue to full case