Tag: Accurate delineation

Norway vs Petrolia Noco AS, May 2022, Court of Appeal, Case No LB-2022-18585

Norway vs Petrolia Noco AS, May 2022, Court of Appeal, Case No LB-2022-18585

In 2011, Petrolia SE established a wholly owned subsidiary in Norway – Petrolia Noco AS – to conduct oil exploration activities on the Norwegian shelf. From the outset, Petrolia Noco AS received a loan from the parent company Petrolia SE. The written loan agreement was first signed later on 15 May 2012. The loan limit was originally MNOK 100 with an agreed interest rate of 3 months NIBOR with the addition of a margin of 2.25 percentage points. When the loan agreement was formalized in writing in 2012, the agreed interest rate was changed to 3 months NIBOR with the addition of an interest margin of 10 percentage points. The loan limit was increased to MNOK 150 in September 2012, and then to MNOK 330 in April 2013. In the tax return for 2012 and 2013, Petrolia Noco AS demanded a full deduction for actual interest costs on the intra-group loan to the parent company Petrolia SE. An assessment was ... Read more
TPG2022 Chapter VI Annex I example 11

TPG2022 Chapter VI Annex I example 11

35. The facts in this example are the same as in Example 9, except that Company S now enters into a three-year royalty-free agreement to market and distribute the watches in the country Y market, with no option to renew. At the end of the three-year period, Company S does not enter into a new contract with Primair. 36. Assume that it is demonstrated that independent enterprises do enter into short-term distribution agreements where they incur marketing and distribution expenses, but only where they stand to earn a reward commensurate with the functions performed, the assets used, and the risks assumed within the time period of the contract. Evidence derived from comparable independent enterprises shows that they do not invest large sums of money in developing marketing and distribution infrastructure where they obtain only a short-term marketing and distribution agreement, with the attendant risk of non-renewal without compensation. The potential short-term nature of the marketing and distribution agreement is such ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.210

The accurate delineation of the actual transaction in scenarios involving captive insurance requires identifying whether the captive insurance is performing control functions regarding the economically significant risks associated to the underwriting function – in particular the insurance risk – to determine whether those risks should be allocated to the captive ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.201

Insurance requires the assumption of insurance risk by the insurer. In the event of a claim, the insured does not suffer the financial impact of a potential economic loss to the extent that insurance risk has been assumed by the insurer, because the loss is offset by the insurance payment ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.200

In order to consider the transfer pricing implications of a transaction with a captive insurance, it is first necessary to identify the commercial or financial relations between the associated enterprises and the conditions and economically relevant circumstances attaching to those relations in order that the actual transaction is accurately delineated. The initial question will therefore be whether the transaction under consideration is one of insurance, as defined above. This analysis requires consideration of whether the risk has been assumed by the insurer and whether risk diversification has been achieved ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.198

Captive insurances may be self-managed from within the MNE group, or managed by an unrelated service provider (often a division of a large insurance broker). Typically this management would include ensuring compliance with local law, issuing policy documents, collecting premiums, paying claims, preparing reports and providing local directors. If the captive insurance is managed from within the MNE group it is necessary to determine which entity manages it (if such management is not exercised by employees of the captive insurance) and to appropriately reward that management ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.197

The insurer is carrying out a risk mitigation function in respect of the insured party’s risk but not actually assuming that risk. It is assuming the risk of insuring (i.e. mitigating) the insured party’s risk. That risk will be controlled by either the insurer or (more likely in a captive insurance scenario) another entity within the MNE group that makes the decision that the risk should be assumed by the insurer. (See paragraph 10.223). The insurer (or other entity) can make decisions as to how to respond to this risk – in accordance with paragraph 1.61 (ii) – by, for example, further diversifying its portfolio of insured risks or by reinsuring ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.196

Although the quantum of the risk reward for the insured party and the insurer might be dependent upon exactly the same events in both cases, that quantum could be significantly different (for example, if the insured risk materialises and a claim is made, the insured party could potentially receive significant upside relative to the premium paid whereas the insurer’s income will be limited to the insurance premiums and investment income it has received regardless of the quantum of risk reward received by the insured party) ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.195

The principles of accurate delineation of the actual transactions and allocation of risk detailed in Chapter I of these Guidelines apply to captive insurance and reinsurance in the same manner that they apply to any other intra-group transactions. However, this section addresses mainly captive insurance (as well as captive reinsurance – fronting). In particular, it should be borne in mind that: the carrying on of risk mitigation functions falls within the wider concept of risk management but not within that of control of risk (see paragraphs 1.61 and 1.65); there is a difference between the specific risk being insured (the party taking the decision to insure – i.e. mitigate – or not, controls this risk; that party will usually be the insured but may be another entity within the MNE group) and the risk taken on by the insurer in providing insurance to the insured party ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.185

Assume that the accurate delineation of the actual transaction shows that the effect of passive association raises Company D’s credit standing from BBB to A, and that the provision of the explicit guarantee additionally enhances the credit standing of Company D to AAA. Assume further that independent lenders charge an interest rate of 8% to entities with a credit rating of A, and of 6% to entities with a credit rating of AAA. Assume further that Company M charges Company D a fee of 3% for the provision of the guarantee so the guarantee fee more than completely offsets the benefit of Company D’s enhanced credit standing derived from the provision of such guarantee ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.154

This section considers financial guarantees on certain intra-group transactions. To consider any transfer pricing consequences of a financial guarantee, it is first necessary to understand the nature and extent of the obligations guaranteed and the consequences for all parties, accurately delineating the actual transaction in accordance with Section D.1 of Chapter I ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.128

As with many types of financial transactions, different intent and understanding can be ascribed to the labels or descriptions attached to particular transactions. Each case must be considered on its own facts and circumstances and in each case accurate delineation of the actual transactions in accordance with the principles of Chapter I will be needed before any attempt to decide on an approach to pricing a transaction ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.89

Once the actual transaction has been accurately delineated, arm’s length interest rates can be sought based on consideration of the credit rating of the borrower or the rating of the specific issuance taking into account all of the terms and conditions of the loan and comparability factors ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.44

When evaluating the transfer pricing issues related to treasury activities, as with any case, it is important to accurately delineate the actual transactions and determine exactly what functions an entity is carrying on rather than to rely to any extent upon a general description such as “treasury activities” ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.37

For example, consider that Company A, a member of AB Group, advances funds with a term of 10 years to an associated enterprise, Company B, which will use the funding for short-term working capital purposes. This advance is the only loan in Company B’s balance sheet. AB Group’s policy and practices demonstrate that the MNE group uses a one-year revolving loan to manage short-term working capital. In this scenario, under the prevailing facts and circumstances, the accurate delineation of the actual transaction may conclude that an unrelated borrower under the same conditions of Company B would not enter into a 10-year loan agreement to manage its short-term working capital needs and the transaction would be accurately delineated as a one-year revolving loan rather than a 10-year loan. The consequences of this delineation would be that assuming the working capital requirements continue to exist, the pricing approach would be to price a series of refreshed one-year revolver loans ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.23

In accurately delineating the actual financial transaction, a functional analysis is necessary. This analysis seeks to identify the functions performed, the assets used and the risks assumed by the parties to that controlled transaction ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.22

The terms and conditions of a financial transaction between independent enterprises are usually explicitly stated in a written agreement. However, between associated enterprises the contractual arrangements may not always provide information in sufficient detail or may be inconsistent with the actual conduct of the parties or other facts and circumstances. It is therefore necessary to look to other documents, the actual conduct of the parties – notwithstanding that such consideration may ultimately result in the conclusion that the contractual form and actual conduct are in alignment – and the economic principles that generally govern relationships between independent enterprises in comparable circumstances in order to accurately delineate the actual transaction in accordance with Section D.1.1 of Chapter I ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.17

In accordance with the guidance established in Chapter I, the accurate delineation of the actual transaction should begin with a thorough identification of the economically relevant characteristics of the transaction – consisting of the commercial or financial relations between the parties and the conditions and economically relevant circumstances attaching to those relations –, including: an examination of the contractual terms of the transaction, the functions performed, assets used, and risks assumed, the characteristics of the financial instruments, the economic circumstances of the parties and of the market, and the business strategies pursued by the parties ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.16

As described in Chapter I, the process of accurate delineation of the actual transaction also requires an understanding of how the particular MNE group responds to those identified factors. In this regard, the MNE group’s policies may inform the accurate delineation of the actual transaction through the consideration of, for instance, how the MNE group prioritises the funding needs among different projects; the strategic significance of a particular MNE within the MNE group; whether the MNE group is targeting a specific credit rating or debt-equity ratio; or whether the MNE group is adopting a different funding strategy than the one observed in its industry sector (see Section B.3.5) ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.15

As with any controlled transaction, the accurate delineation of financial transactions requires an analysis of the factors affecting the performance of businesses in the industry sector in which the MNE group operates. Because differences exist among industry sectors, factors such as the particular point of an economic, business or product cycle, the effect of government regulations, or the availability of financial resources in a given industry are relevant features that have to be considered to accurately delineate the controlled transaction. This examination will take account of the fact that MNE groups operating in different sectors may require, for example, different amounts and types of financing due to different capital intensity levels between industries, or may require different levels of short-term cash balances due to different commercial needs between industries. Where the relevant MNEs are regulated, such as financial services entities subject to regulations consistent with recognised industry standards (e.g. Basel requirements), due regard should be had to the constraints those ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.12

In accurately delineating an advance of funds, the following economically relevant characteristics may be useful indicators, depending on the facts and circumstances: the presence or absence of a fixed repayment date; the obligation to pay interest; the right to enforce payment of principal and interest; the status of the funder in comparison to regular corporate creditors; the existence of financial covenants and security; the source of interest payments; the ability of the recipient of the funds to obtain loans from unrelated lending institutions; the extent to which the advance is used to acquire capital assets; and the failure of the purported debtor to repay on the due date or to seek a postponement ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.11

Particular labels or descriptions assigned to financial transactions do not constrain the transfer pricing analysis. Each situation must be examined on its own merits, and subject to the prefatory language in the previous paragraph, accurate delineation of the actual transaction under Chapter I will precede any pricing attempt ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.10

Although countries may have different views on the application of Article 9 to determine the balance of debt and equity funding of an entity within an MNE group, the purpose of this section is to provide guidance for countries that use the accurate delineation under Chapter I to determine whether a purported loan should be regarded as a loan for tax purposes (or should be regarded as some other kind of payment, in particular a contribution to equity capital) ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.6

In the context of the preceding paragraphs, this subsection elaborates on how the concepts of Chapter I, in particular the accurate delineation of the actual transaction under Section D.1, may relate to the balance of debt and equity funding of an entity within an MNE group ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter IX paragraph 9.18

The accurate delineation of the transactions comprising the business restructuring requires performing a functional analysis that seeks to identify the economically significant activities and responsibilities undertaken, assets used or contributed, and risks assumed before and after the restructuring by the parties involved. Accordingly, the analysis focuses on what the parties actually do and the capabilities, as well as the type and nature of assets used or contributed by the parties in a pre-restructuring and post-restructuring scenarios. See Section D. 1.2 of Chapter I. Given the importance of risk in the analysis of business restructurings, the following section provides specific guidance on the analysis of risk in transactions comprising the business restructuring ... Read more

OECD COVID-19 TPG paragraph 46

The above analysis outlines the factors that should be considered when determining whether associated parties may at arm’s length consider revising their intercompany agreements and/or their conduct in their commercial relationships as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it is important to emphasise that in the absence of clear evidence that independent parties in comparable circumstances would have revised their existing agreements or commercial relations, the modification of existing intercompany arrangements and/or the commercial relationships of associated parties is not consistent with the arm’s length principle. Accordingly, such modifications should be treated with caution and well-supported by documentation outlining how the modification is in line with the arm’s length principle ... Read more

OECD COVID-19 TPG paragraph 45

Determining whether a renegotiation of a commercial arrangement (including pricing under the arrangement going forward and any potential compensation for the renegotiation itself) represents the best interests of the parties to a transaction requires careful consideration of their options realistically available26 and the long-run effects on the profit potential of the parties.27 For example, an entity may agree to restructure a transaction if the alternative option is losing a key customer or supplier, where it considers that the restructuring will maximise its profits in the long-run. Consideration should also be given to whether the economic impact resulting from the renegotiation may require indemnification (as defined in OECD TPG paragraph 9.75) of the harmed party.28 26 It should be noted that in an uncontrolled transaction one party might attempt to force a renegotiation by threatening to violate the terms of an existing agreement, believing that the other party will not find it worthwhile to seek judicial enforcement of the agreement, whereas ... Read more

OECD COVID-19 TPG paragraph 44

For example, assume that Distributor X purchases products, the controlled transaction, from a related party Company Y, and sells these products to third party customers. Further assume that a major customer of Distributor X does not pay for products purchased within its standard 30-day term, and that this causes a cash flow issue for Distributor X, who bears credit risk under the accurately delineated transaction. Under these circumstances, Distributor X may seek to renegotiate its payment terms on a temporary basis with Company Y. The determination of whether this renegotiation is arm’s length should be based on what independent parties would do under comparable circumstances and if there have been situations at arm’s length where contractual terms have not been enforced, or have been amended, this may form reasonable evidence for taxpayers to justify revised terms in intra-group agreements where the situations are comparable ... Read more

OECD COVID-19 TPG paragraph 43

Given the current economic environment, it is possible that independent parties may not strictly hold another party to their contractual obligations, particularly if it is in the interest of both parties to renegotiate the contract or to amend certain aspects of their For example, unrelated enterprises may opt to renegotiate a contract to support the financial survival of any of the transactional counterparties given the potential costs or business disruptions of enforcing the contractual obligations, or in view of anticipated increased future business with the counterparty. This behaviour should be considered when determining whether or not associated parties would agree to revise their intercompany agreements in response to COVID-19 ... Read more

OECD COVID-19 TPG paragraph 42

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, independent parties could seek to renegotiate certain terms in their existing agreements.25 Associated parties may also consider revising their intercompany agreements and/or their conduct in their commercial relationships. Tax administrations should therefore review the agreements and/or the conduct of associated enterprises, in light of the guidance in section D of Chapter I of the OECD TPG, together with observations of relevant behaviour of independent parties and this guidance, in order to ascertain whether any such renegotiation should be respected under the OECD TPG. The accurate delineation of the controlled transaction will determine whether the revision of intercompany agreements is consistent with the behaviour of unrelated parties operating under comparable circumstances. 25  Part 1, Section F of Chapter IX of the OECD TPG ... Read more
Peru vs. "P Services", July 2020, Tax Court, Case No 03052-5-2020

Peru vs. “P Services”, July 2020, Tax Court, Case No 03052-5-2020

“P Services! provided services to a Peruvian consortium. In 2014, the parties entered into an interest-free loan agreement. According to the loan agreement, payment for the services performed in 2013 was going to be offset against the funds received under the agreement. The tax authorities found that the “loan arrangement”, in reality constituted advances for the services provided by “P Services”- According to the authorities the arrangement had been established for the purpose of avoiding VAT on the advances received for the services. Decision of the Tax Court The tax court issued a decision in favour of the tax authorities. Click here for English translation Click here for other translation Peru vs Taxpayer 2020_5_03052 (002) ... Read more

TPG2020 Chapter X paragraph 10.198

Captive insurances may be self-managed from within the MNE group, or managed by an unrelated service provider (often a division of a large insurance broker). Typically this management would include ensuring compliance with local law, issuing policy documents, collecting premiums, paying claims, preparing reports and providing local directors. If the captive insurance is managed from within the MNE group it is necessary to determine which entity manages it (if such management is not exercised by employees of the captive insurance) and to appropriately reward that management ... Read more

TPG2020 Chapter X paragraph 10.197

The insurer is carrying out a risk mitigation function in respect of the insured party’s risk but not actually assuming that risk. It is assuming the risk of insuring (i.e. mitigating) the insured party’s risk. That risk will be controlled by either the insurer or (more likely in a captive insurance scenario) another entity within the MNE group that makes the decision that the risk should be assumed by the insurer. (See paragraph 10.223). The insurer (or other entity) can make decisions as to how to respond to this risk – in accordance with paragraph 1.61 (ii) – by, for example, further diversifying its portfolio of insured risks or by reinsuring ... Read more

TPG2020 Chapter X paragraph 10.196

Although the quantum of the risk reward for the insured party and the insurer might be dependent upon exactly the same events in both cases, that quantum could be significantly different (for example, if the insured risk materialises and a claim is made, the insured party could potentially receive significant upside relative to the premium paid whereas the insurer’s income will be limited to the insurance premiums and investment income it has received regardless of the quantum of risk reward received by the insured party) ... Read more

TPG2020 Chapter X paragraph 10.195

The principles of accurate delineation of the actual transactions and allocation of risk detailed in Chapter I of these Guidelines apply to captive insurance and reinsurance in the same manner that they apply to any other intra-group transactions. However, this section addresses mainly captive insurance (as well as captive reinsurance – fronting). In particular, it should be borne in mind that: the carrying on of risk mitigation functions falls within the wider concept of risk management but not within that of control of risk (see paragraphs 1.61 and 1.65); there is a difference between the specific risk being insured (the party taking the decision to insure – i.e. mitigate – or not, controls this risk; that party will usually be the insured but may be another entity within the MNE group) and the risk taken on by the insurer in providing insurance to the insured party ... Read more

TPG2020 Chapter X paragraph 10.16

As described in Chapter I, the process of accurate delineation of the actual transaction also requires an understanding of how the particular MNE group responds to those identified factors. In this regard, the MNE group’s policies may inform the accurate delineation of the actual transaction through the consideration of, for instance, how the MNE group prioritises the funding needs among different projects; the strategic significance of a particular MNE within the MNE group; whether the MNE group is targeting a specific credit rating or debt-equity ratio; or whether the MNE group is adopting a different funding strategy than the one observed in its industry sector (see Section B.3.5) ... Read more

TPG2020 Chapter X paragraph 10.15

As with any controlled transaction, the accurate delineation of financial transactions requires an analysis of the factors affecting the performance of businesses in the industry sector in which the MNE group operates. Because differences exist among industry sectors, factors such as the particular point of an economic, business or product cycle, the effect of government regulations, or the availability of financial resources in a given industry are relevant features that have to be considered to accurately delineate the controlled transaction. This examination will take account of the fact that MNE groups operating in different sectors may require, for example, different amounts and types of financing due to different capital intensity levels between industries, or may require different levels of short-term cash balances due to different commercial needs between industries. Where the relevant MNEs are regulated, such as financial services entities subject to regulations consistent with recognised industry standards (e.g. Basel requirements), due regard should be had to the constraints those ... Read more

TPG2020 Chapter X paragraph 10.12

In accurately delineating an advance of funds, the following economically relevant characteristics may be useful indicators, depending on the facts and circumstances: the presence or absence of a fixed repayment date; the obligation to pay interest; the right to enforce payment of principal and interest; the status of the funder in comparison to regular corporate creditors; the existence of financial covenants and security; the source of interest payments; the ability of the recipient of the funds to obtain loans from unrelated lending institutions; the extent to which the advance is used to acquire capital assets; and the failure of the purported debtor to repay on the due date or to seek a postponement ... Read more

TPG2020 Chapter X paragraph 10.11

Particular labels or descriptions assigned to financial transactions do not constrain the transfer pricing analysis. Each situation must be examined on its own merits, and subject to the prefatory language in the previous paragraph, accurate delineation of the actual transaction under Chapter I will precede any pricing attempt ... Read more

TPG2020 Chapter X paragraph 10.10

Although countries may have different views on the application of Article 9 to determine the balance of debt and equity funding of an entity within an MNE group, the purpose of this section is to provide guidance for countries that use the accurate delineation under Chapter I to determine whether a purported loan should be regarded as a loan for tax purposes (or should be regarded as some other kind of payment, in particular a contribution to equity capital) ... Read more

TPG2020 Chapter X paragraph 10.6

In the context of the preceding paragraphs, this subsection elaborates on how the concepts of Chapter I, in particular the accurate delineation of the actual transaction under Section D.1, may relate to the balance of debt and equity funding of an entity within an MNE group ... Read more