Tag: Bargaining power

Czech Republic vs ANITA B s.r.o., November 2022, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No 4 Afs 381/2021-40

Czech Republic vs ANITA B s.r.o., November 2022, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No 4 Afs 381/2021-40

Following an audit the tax authorities issued an assessment of additional income resulting from an adjustment of the tax deductions related to marketing expenses. According to the tax authorities the price agreed between the related parties for advertising space was excessive and not determined in accordance with the arm’s length principle. ANITA B s.r.o. filed an appeal against the assessment. The Regional Court dismissed the appeal as unfounded by judgment of 26 October 2021, No. 62 Af 70/2019-48. The Court concluded that the tax authorities had established that the price agreed between ANITA B s.r.o. and its supplier (ELAPROMO) differed from the price that would have been agreed between unrelated parties. The Court upheld the method chosen by the tax authorities and concluded that ANITA B s.r.o. had failed to prove that the advertising costs claimed were justified in full. An appeal was then filed with the Supreme Administrative Court Judgement of the Supreme Administrative Court The court decided in ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter IX paragraph 9.129

In such an example, given that the relocated activity is a highly competitive one, it is likely that the enterprise in Country A has the option realistically available to it to use either the affiliate in Country B or a third party manufacturer. As a consequence, it should be possible to find comparables data to determine the conditions in which a third party would be willing at arm’s length to manufacture the clothes for the enterprise. In such a situation, a contract manufacturer at arm’s length would generally be attributed very little, if any, part of the location savings. Doing otherwise would put the associated manufacturer in a situation different from the situation of an independent manufacturer, and would be contrary to the arm’s length principle ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VII paragraph 7.41

Research is similarly an example of an activity that may involve intra-group services. The terms of the activity can be set out in a detailed contract with the party commissioning the service, commonly known as contract research. The activity can involve highly skilled personnel and vary considerably both in its nature and in its importance to the success of the group. The actual arrangements can take a variety of forms from the undertaking of detailed programmes laid down by the principal party, extending to agreements where the research company has discretion to work within broadly defined categories. In the latter instance, the additional functions of identifying commercially valuable areas and assessing the risk of unsuccessful research can be a critical factor in the performance of the group as a whole. It is therefore crucial to undertake a detailed functional analysis and to obtain a clear understanding of the precise nature of the research, and of how the activities are being ... Read more
Netherlands vs Hunkemöller B.V., January 2020, AG opinion - before the Supreme Court, Case No ECLI:NL:PHR:2020:102

Netherlands vs Hunkemöller B.V., January 2020, AG opinion – before the Supreme Court, Case No ECLI:NL:PHR:2020:102

To acquire companies and resell them with capital gains a French Investment Fund distributed the capital of its investors (€ 5.4 billion in equity) between a French Fund Commun de Placement à Risques (FCPRs) and British Ltds managed by the French Investment Fund. For the purpose of acquiring the [X] group (the target), the French Investment Fund set up three legal entities in the Netherlands, [Y] UA, [B] BV, and [C] BV (the acquisition holding company). These three joint taxed entities are shown as Fiscal unit [A] below. The capital to be used for the acquisition of [X] group was divided into four FCPRs that held 30%, 30%, 30% and 10% in [Y] respectively. To get the full amount needed for the acquisition, [Y] members provided from their equity to [Y]: (i) member capital (€ 74.69 million by the FCPRs, € 1.96 million by the Fund Management, € 1.38 million by [D]) and (ii) investment in convertible instruments (hybrid loan ... Read more
Netherlands vs "Metal Packaging Procurement B.V.", April 2004, Hoge Raad, Case No 39542, ECLI:NL:HR:2004:AO9474

Netherlands vs “Metal Packaging Procurement B.V.”, April 2004, Hoge Raad, Case No 39542, ECLI:NL:HR:2004:AO9474

This case concerns allocation of profits resulting from centralizing procurement functions within a group. The tax authorities took the position that the profit claimed by a centralized purchasing office was not aligned with the functions performed and the risks assumed by the office. According to the tax authorities profits derived from the realized discounts should be distributed to the members of the group (including a Dutch member) in proportion to their contribution of purchasing volume. Judgement of the Court The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the tax authorities. Profits in excess of the costs of the centralized purchase office with a markup of 5%, should at arm’s length be distributed to the members of the group in proportion to their contribution of purchasing volume. Excerpts “5.14. Notwithstanding the fact that [A-2 NV]’s profit was not so much caused by its own efforts but by the group’s policy of concentrating the price negotiations in [A-2 NV], and the extremely limited ... Read more