Tag: Cash pool

Cash pooling can be used to manage the multinational group’s cash position on a consolidated basis and concentrate the group’s cash in one place. A cash pool is normally administered by a group company which is to be referred as the cash pool leader.

Spain vs "XZ SA", March 2022, TEAC, Case No Rec. 4377-2018

Spain vs “XZ SA”, March 2022, TEAC, Case No Rec. 4377-2018

“XZ SA” is a Spanish parent of a tax consolidation group which is part of a multinational group. The Spanish group participates in the group’s cash pooling system, both as a borrower and as a provider of funds. The objective of cash pooling agreements is to manage the cash positions of the participating entities, optimising the group’s financial results by channelling the excess liquidity of the group companies that generate it to the group companies that need financing, resorting to third-party financing when the group itself is not able to finance itself. This achieves greater efficiency in the use of the group’s funds, as well as improving their profitability and reducing the administrative and general financial costs of the entities participating in the agreement. The tax authorities issued an assessment in which the interest rates on deposits and withdraws had been aligned and determined based on a group credit rating. A complaint was filed with the TEAC by XZ SA ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.148

These cross-guarantees and set-off rights are a feature of an arrangement which would not occur between independent parties. Each guarantor is providing a guarantee for all members of the pool but will not have control over membership of the pool, has no control over the quantum of the debt which it is guaranteeing, and may not be able to access information on the parties for whom it is providing a guarantee. With other parties providing guarantees on the same loans, it may not be possible for the guarantor to evaluate its real risk in the event of a default. Thus, the practical result of the cross- guaranteeing arrangement is such that the formal guarantee may represent nothing more than an acknowledgement that it would be detrimental to the interests of the MNE group not to support the performance of the cash pool leader and so, by extension, the borrower. In such circumstances the guaranteed borrower may not be benefitting beyond ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.147

As part of the cash pooling arrangement, cross-guarantees and rights of set-off between participants in the cash pool may be required. This raises the question of whether guarantee fees should be payable. It will always be appropriate to consider the particular facts and circumstances in any situation but there are certain factors which are likely to be common to many cash pools: there will be numerous members of the pool, there may be both entities with debit positions and entities with credit positions in the pool, each pool member may have a different stand-alone credit rating, and the pooling agreement with the bank is likely to require full cross-guarantees and rights of set-off between all pool participants ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.146

It is expected that all cash pool participants will be better off than in the absence of the cash pool arrangement. Under prevailing facts and circumstances that could imply, for instance, that all cash pool participants would benefit from enhanced interest rates applicable to debit and credit position within the cash pooling arrangement compared to the rates that they would expect to obtain from borrowing or depositing cash outside of the pool. However, it is important to note that cash pool members might be willing to participate in cash pool arrangements to access benefits from the membership of the cash pool other than an enhanced interest rate like, for instance, access to a permanent source of financing; reduced exposure to external banks; or access to liquidity that may not be available otherwise ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.145

Determining the arm’s length interest rates for the cash pool intra-group transactions may be a difficult exercise due to the lack of comparable arrangements between unrelated parties. In this context, banking arrangements involving the cash pool leader, taking into account functional differences between the bank and the cash pool leader, and the options realistically available to the cash pool members may inform the identification of comparable interest rates in the transfer pricing analysis ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.144

Eventually, the remuneration of the cash pool members will depend upon the specific facts and circumstances and the functions, assets and risks of each of the pool members. Therefore, this guidance does not intend to provide a prescriptive approach for allocating the cash pooling benefits to the participating cash pool members in any given situation but rather lays down the principles that should guide that allocation ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.143

The remuneration of the cash pool members will be calculated through the determination of the arm’s length interest rates applicable to the debit and credit positions within the pool. This determination will allocate the synergy benefits arising from the cash pool arrangement amongst the pool members and it will generally be done once the remuneration of the cash pool leader has been calculated ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.142

It should be borne in mind that the other group members which transact with T would still only do so if this left them no worse off than their next best option ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.141

Accordingly, T should be compensated for the functions it performs and the risks it assumes in accordance with the guidance in Section C.1. This may include earning part or all of the spread between the borrowing and lending positions which it adopts ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.140

The analysis under the guidance in Section D.1 of Chapter I indicates that the actual transactions should be accurately delineated as intra-group loans in the context of the treasury activities undertaken by Company T since Company T is performing functions and assuming risks that go beyond the coordination role of a cash pool leader. In particular, the functional analysis shows that Company T controls the financial risks contractually allocated to it and has the financial capacity to bear those risks ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.139

As part of the group liquidity arrangements, T operates an MNE group cash pooling arrangement and is responsible for deciding how to invest surplus funds or fund any shortfall. T sets the intra-group interest rates and is at risk for any differences between the rates it sets with other group members and the rates at which it transacts with the independent lenders. T also bears credit risk, liquidity risk and currency risk for intra-group finance and decides on how or whether to hedge such risks ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.138

Company T, a member of MNE Group Y, performs as the MNE group treasury entity and undertakes a range of different financial transactions both intra-group and externally. Company T’s main purpose is to provide treasury services to the other entities within the MNE group including strategy and management of group liquidity. T is responsible for raising finance across the MNE group by issuing bonds or borrowing from third party banks and arranges intra-group loans to meet the funding needs of other group members as necessary ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.137

A functional analysis shows that M is not subject to credit risk, which remains with the cash pool members, but merely performs a co-ordination function. Furthermore M is not performing the functions or assuming the risks that a bank would. Therefore M would not earn the kind of reward that a bank would earn such as retaining the interest spread between deposits and loans. Accordingly, M would earn a reward commensurate with the service functions it provides to the pool ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.136

As a result of the arrangements in place, M pays less interest to the bank or receives more interest than would have been the case absent the pooling arrangements ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.135

Under the cash management services agreement the bank makes any transfers necessary to meet the target balance for each pool participant with any net surplus deposited by M or any net overdrawn position being met by the bank lending to M. The facility that M may draw on is guaranteed by X. The third- party bank pays interest to, or receives interest from M based on the overall, pooled, position. In this instance, M receives surplus funds from MNE group members H and J and provides funds to MNE group members K and L which have a funding need. Interest on the balances of the pool participants is charged or paid in accordance with the pooling agreements ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.134

M sets up an intra-group cash pooling arrangement with an unrelated bank. Legal arrangements are put in place for all participants which allow transfers to or from M’s cash concentration account to meet a specified target balance for each pool participant ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.133

X is the parent entity of an MNE group which has subsidiaries H, J, K, and L which participate in a physical cash pooling arrangement with fellow subsidiary M acting as cash pool leader. All participants have the same functional currency and that is the only currency in the pool ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.131

Where accurate delineation of the actual transactions determines that a cash pool leader is carrying on activities other than coordination or agency functions, the pricing of such transactions would follow the approaches included in other parts of this guidance, as appropriate ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.130

In general, a cash pool leader performs no more than a co-ordination or agency function with the master account being a centralised point for a series of book entries to meet the pre-determined target balances for the pool members. Given such a low level of functionality, the cash pool leader’s remuneration as a service provider will generally be similarly limited ... Read more