Tag: Central tendency

Italy releases operational instructions on arm's length range and benchmarking.

Italy releases operational instructions on arm’s length range and benchmarking.

On 24 May 2022, the Italian Tax Agency (Agenzia delle Entrate) released CIRCULAR NO. 16/E containing operational instructions on issues relating to application of the arm’s length range. The circular – which is based on the OECD transfer Pricing Guidelines, guidance on benchmark studies issued by the Joint Transfer Pricing Forum, and relevant Italian case laws – provides operational instructions regarding the correct interpretation of the notion of “arm’s length range”, as also specified in Article 6 of the Decree of 14 May 2018, when applying the provisions set forth in Article 110, paragraph 7, of the Consolidated Income Tax Act or of the provisions contained in the Double Taxation Treaties entered into by Italy in accordance with Article 9 of the OECD Model Convention. The operational instructions concludes as follows the correct application of the most appropriate transfer pricing method may, instead of a single value, lead to a range of values all complying with the arm’s length principle; ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter III paragraph 3.62

In determining this point, where the range comprises results of relatively equal and high reliability, it could be argued that any point in the range satisfies the arm’s length principle. Where comparability defects remain as discussed at paragraph 3.57, it may be appropriate to use measures of central tendency to determine this point (for instance the median, the mean or weighted averages, etc., depending on the specific characteristics of the data set), in order to minimise the risk of error due to unknown or unquantifiable remaining comparability defects ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter III paragraph 3.57

It may also be the case that, while every effort has been made to exclude points that have a lesser degree of comparability, what is arrived at is a range of figures for which it is considered, given the process used for selecting comparables and limitations in information available on comparables, that some comparability defects remain that cannot be identified and/or quantified, and are therefore not adjusted. In such cases, if the range includes a sizeable number of observations, statistical tools that take account of central tendency to narrow the range (e.g. the interquartile range or other percentiles) might help to enhance the reliability of the analysis ... Read more
Spain vs Varian Medical Systems Iberica S.L., October 2021, Audiencia Nacional, Case No SAN 4241/2021 - ECLI:ES:AN:2021:4241

Spain vs Varian Medical Systems Iberica S.L., October 2021, Audiencia Nacional, Case No SAN 4241/2021 – ECLI:ES:AN:2021:4241

Varian Medical Systems Iberica S.L. is the Spanish subsidiary of the multinational company Varian Medical Systems and carries out two types of activities – distribution and after-sales services. The products sold was purchased from related entities: Varian Medical Systems Inc., Varian Medical Systems UK Ltd., Varian Medical Systems International AG and Varian Medical Systems HAAN GmbH. The remuneration of Varian Medical Systems Iberica S.L. had been determined by application of the net margin method for all transactions and resulted in a operating margin of 2.86% in 2005 and 2.75% in 2006. In 2010 an audit were performed by the tax authorities for FY 2005 and 2006, which resulted in an adjustment. The tax authorities accepted the net margin method, but made various corrections in its application. The adjustments made by the tax authorities resulted in a operating margin of 6.45% in the two years under review, The tax administration argued that the margins determined by Varian Medical Systems Iberica S.L ... Read more
Spain vs XZ SA, May 2021, TEAC, Case No Rec. 2545/2019

Spain vs XZ SA, May 2021, TEAC, Case No Rec. 2545/2019

Following an audit the tax administration had adjusted the margin obtained by the taxpayer to the median, as it was below the interquartile range of the benchmark analysis. An appeal was filed by the taxpayer with the TEAC. Judgement of the TEAC The TEAC upheld the taxpayer’s appeal and annulled the decision of the tax authorities. Excerpt “… In the present case, the inspectorate has accepted the comparability study of the company without noting any shortcomings in the study. It only notes, perhaps as a justification for the unreliability of the company’s information, that: It should be clear, therefore, that, according to the background information in the file, at no time has group X commissioned or agreed to have its costs and other elements determining the group’s internal data, including its own costs, verified by an independent third party, prior to their provision to the entity responsible (…) for preparing the documentation on related-party transactions, provided in the course of ... Read more
Spain vs BIOMERIEUX ESPAÑA SA, February 2021, National Court, Case No 2021:416

Spain vs BIOMERIEUX ESPAÑA SA, February 2021, National Court, Case No 2021:416

BIOMERIEUX ESPAÑA SA is active in the business of clinical and biological analysis, production, distribution, training and technical assistance. Likewise, the provision of computer services and, in particular, the computer management of laboratories. Following an audit the tax authorities found that the controlled prices agreed for the acquisition of instruments and consumables between bioMérieux España and its related entities, bioMérieux SA and bioMérieux Inc, did not provided bioMérieux España with an arm’s length return on is controlled activities. A tax assessment was issued for FY 2008 on the basis af a thorough critical analysis of the benchmark study provided by the BIOMERIEUX, and detailed reasoning and analysis in regards to comparability and market developments. Judgement of the National Court The Audiencia Nacional dismissed the appeal of Biomerieux España SA and decided in favour of the tax authorities. Excerpts “As we already reasoned in our SAN (2nd) of 6 March 2019 (Rec. 353/2015 ), it is legitimate to resort to what ... Read more
Portugal vs "A-Contract Manufacturer LDA", December 2020, CAAD Tax Arbitration, Case No 808/2019-T

Portugal vs “A-Contract Manufacturer LDA”, December 2020, CAAD Tax Arbitration, Case No 808/2019-T

A-Contract Manufacturer LDA is an entity residing in Portugal, whose main activity is contract manufacturing of coffee machines and irons, as well as spare parts, tools etc. on behalf of its German parent B A.G. Following an audit, the tax authorities found that the results of A-Contract Manufacturer LDA had not been at arm’s length. An assessment of additional income was issued where the adjustment had been determined based on a benchmark study and use of statistical tools – interquartile range and median. Not satisfied with the assessment A-Contract Manufacturer LDA brought the case to the CAAD, a Portuguese arbitration tribunal. Decision of CAAD The CAAD decided in favour of the tax authorities and upheld the assessment. Excerpt “In sum, regarding the first claim of the Claimant that the arm’s length principle was violated, it appears that the Defendant did nothing more than, in compliance with the duty imposed by art. In short, as to the first claim of violation ... Read more

OECD COVID-19 TPG paragraph 26

The principles outlined in Section B.5 of Chapter III of the OECD TPG regarding the use of multiple year data and averages remain applicable. In ordinary circumstances, the use of multiple year data and multiple year averages for comparability analyses may have certain advantages. For example, it can be used as a means to mitigate the impact of accounting differences, appropriately measure the effects on profitability for the tested party based on its business and product life cycles, and to evaluate the same for the comparables, such that the reliability of the comparison is increased.13 13 Paragraph 3.77 of Chapter III of the OECD TPG ... Read more
Hungary vs "Auto Parts Ktf", May 2020, Supreme Court (Kúria), Case No. Kfv.I. 35,618 / 2019/11

Hungary vs “Auto Parts Ktf”, May 2020, Supreme Court (Kúria), Case No. Kfv.I. 35,618 / 2019/11

Auto Parts Ktf’s principal activity is the manufacture and sale of passenger cars and spare parts. Between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014, it sold its products to its affiliated undertakings and to unrelated parties. Auto Parts Ktf had prepared transfer pricing documentation, in which it determined the arm’s length price using the transaction net margin method (TNMM). Auto Parts Ktf identified 9 comparable companies for 2013 based on a benchmark using the Amadeus database version of 17 April 2014, and based on the financial documents of these companies for 2010-2012, it defined the interquartile range of the normal price range as the market price range between 2.13% and 9.78%. For 2014, it did not update its benchmark, but fixed the minimum-maximum range as in 2013 and considered this as the market price range. For both years, the applicant examined the total operating profit of the manufacturing activity on a consolidated basis, which showed a profit of 2,22 % ... Read more
Hungary vs "Auto Parts Ktf", May 2019, Administrative Court, Case No. 1.K.27.084 / 2019

Hungary vs “Auto Parts Ktf”, May 2019, Administrative Court, Case No. 1.K.27.084 / 2019

Auto Parts Ktf’s principal activity is the manufacture and sale of passenger cars and spare parts. Between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014, it sold its products to its affiliated undertakings and to unrelated parties. Auto Parts Ktf had prepared transfer pricing documentation, in which it determined the arm’s length price using the transaction net margin method (TNMM). Auto Parts Ktf identified 9 comparable companies for 2013 based on a benchmark using the Amadeus database version of 17 April 2014, and based on the financial documents of these companies for 2010-2012, it defined the interquartile range of the normal price range as the market price range between 2.13% and 9.78%. For 2014, it did not update its benchmark, but fixed the minimum-maximum range as in 2013 and considered this as the market price range. For both years, the applicant examined the total operating profit of the manufacturing activity on a consolidated basis, which showed a profit of 2,22 % ... Read more

TPG2017 Chapter III paragraph 3.62

In determining this point, where the range comprises results of relatively equal and high reliability, it could be argued that any point in the range satisfies the arm’s length principle. Where comparability defects remain as discussed at paragraph 3.57, it may be appropriate to use measures of central tendency to determine this point (for instance the median, the mean or weighted averages, etc., depending on the specific characteristics of the data set), in order to minimise the risk of error due to unknown or unquantifiable remaining comparability defects ... Read more

TPG2017 Chapter III paragraph 3.57

It may also be the case that, while every effort has been made to exclude points that have a lesser degree of comparability, what is arrived at is a range of figures for which it is considered, given the process used for selecting comparables and limitations in information available on comparables, that some comparability defects remain that cannot be identified and/or quantified, and are therefore not adjusted. In such cases, if the range includes a sizeable number of observations, statistical tools that take account of central tendency to narrow the range (e.g. the interquartile range or other percentiles) might help to enhance the reliability of the analysis ... Read more
India vs. Adaptec (India) P. Ltd., March 2015, Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, ITA.No. 206/Hyd/2014

India vs. Adaptec (India) P. Ltd., March 2015, Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, ITA.No. 206/Hyd/2014

Adaptec. Ltd. is engaged in the business of software, design and development and testing in the field of storage solutions. It filed its tax return declaring income of Rs.89,51,330. Since assessee is functioning as service provider to it’s group parent on cost + 10% margin basis. Following an audit, the tax authorities selected 17 comparable companies, and arrived at an arithmetic mean of 25.26% and issued an assessment of additional taxable income of Rs.63,53,365. Adaptec filed an appeal with the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal. Judgement of the Court The Court ruled predominantly in favour of the tax authorities but remanded the case for recalculations. India vs Adaptec_India_P_Ltd 206-Hyd-2014 ... Read more