Tag: Comparability analysis

A comparability analysis is a comparison of a controlled transaction with an uncontrolled transaction or transactions. Controlled and uncontrolled transactions are comparable if none of the differences between the transactions could materially affect the factor being examined in the methodology (e.g. price or margin), or if reasonably accurate adjustments can be made to eliminate the material effects of any such differences.

Spain vs. Zeraim Iberica SA, June 2018, Audiencia Nacional, Case No. ES:AN:2018:2856

Spain vs. Zeraim Iberica SA, June 2018, Audiencia Nacional, Case No. ES:AN:2018:2856

ZERAIM IBERICA SA, a Spanish subsidiary in the Swiss Syngenta Group (that produces seeds and agrochemicals), had first been issued a tax assessment relating to fiscal years 2006 and 2007 and later another assessment for FY 2008 and 2009 related to the arm’s length price of seeds acquired from Zeraim Gedera (Israel) and thus the profitability of the distribution activities in Spain. The company held that new evidence – an advance pricing agreement (APA) between France and Switzerland – demonstrated that the comparability analysis carried out by the Spanish tax authorities suffered from significant deficiencies and resulted in at totally irrational result, intending to allocate a net operating result or net margin of 32.79% in fiscal year 2008 and 30.81% in 2009 to ZERAIM IBERICA SA when the profitability of distribution companies in the sector had average net margins of 1.59%. The tax authorities on there side argued that the best method for pricing the transactions was the Resale Price ... Continue to full case
Denmark vs. Danish Production A/S, Feb 2018, Tax Tribunal, SKM2018.62.LSR

Denmark vs. Danish Production A/S, Feb 2018, Tax Tribunal, SKM2018.62.LSR

The Danish Tax Tribunal found that the tax administration had been entitled to make an estimated assessment, due to the lack of a comparability analysis in the company’s transfer pricing documentation. The Tax Tribunal also found that the Danish company had correctly been chosen as tested party when applying the TNMM, although the foreign sales companies were the least complex. Information about the foreign sales companies was insufficient and a significant part of the income in the foreign sales companies related to sale of goods not purchased from the Danish production company. Click here for translation SKM2018-62-LSR ... Continue to full case
India vs. L’oreal India Pvt. Ltd. May 2016, Income Tax Appellate Tribunal

India vs. L’oreal India Pvt. Ltd. May 2016, Income Tax Appellate Tribunal

L’oreal in India is engaged in manufacturing and distribution of cosmetics and beauty products. In respect of the distribution L’oreal had applied the RPM by benchmarking the gross margin of at 4o.80% against that of comparables at 14.85%. The tax administration rejected the RPM method on the basis that the L’oreal India was consistently incurring losses and the gross margins cannot be relied upon because of product differences in comparables. Accordingly, the tax administration applied Transactional Net Margin Method. L’oreal argued that the years of losses was due to a market penetration strategy in India – not non-arm’s-length pricing of transactions. The comparables had been on the Indian market much longer than L’oreal and had established themselves firmly in the Indian market. The Appellate Tribunal observed that L’oreal India buys products from its parent and sells to unrelated parties without any further processing. According to the OECD TPG, in such a situation, RPM is the most appropriate transfer pricing method. L’oreal India had also produced evidence from its parent that margin earned by the ... Continue to full case
Japan vs Honda Motor Company Limited, May 2015, Tokyo High Court judgment

Japan vs Honda Motor Company Limited, May 2015, Tokyo High Court judgment

In the Tokyo High Court judgment, dated 13 May 2015, Honda Motor Company Limited, a major Japanese automobile manufacturer, obtained a cancellation of a tax assessment of ¥25.4 billion. The court held that the tax authorities had erred in the selection of companies comparable to the tested party (Honda’s foreign subsidiary in Brazil). The tested party was doing business in the Free Economic Zone of Manaus in Brazil – whereas the selected comparables was located outside the zone. The existence of Manaus Tax benefit was considered a market condition affecting the degree of profitability. Hence profits of the Honda subsidiary in Manaus could not be determined based on similar independent Brazilian companies outside the zone. Click here for translation JAP case ... Continue to full case
Italy vs GE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS SPA, December 2014, Supreme Court 27296

Italy vs GE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS SPA, December 2014, Supreme Court 27296

In this case the Italien tax administration concluded that transactions between an Italien company an a German sister company had been priced lower than the “normal value”. The Court found that in relation to intercompany transactions GE Transportation Systems S.p.A. was a contract manufacturer. The German company owned the intellectual property. In relation to transactions with independent companies, GE Transportation Systems S.p.A. assumed the risks of the transaction and had the rights to manufacture and sell the products. These differences justified the different price and led to the incomparability of them. The Court concluded that a contract manufacturer cannot be compared to full-fledged manufacturers. The former is in a weak barganing position compared to the German principal. The principal is in fact the owner of all of the intangibles, and this puts the Italien contract manufacturer in a weaker barganing position compared to a full-fledged manufacturer that owns the relevant intangibles. The Court ruled in favor of the GE Transportation ... Continue to full case
India vs. Quark Systems Pvt. Ltd. Oct 2014, ITA No.282

India vs. Quark Systems Pvt. Ltd. Oct 2014, ITA No.282

Quark Systems Pvt. is engaged in providing customer support services on behalf of the Quark Group. TNMM had been applied as the most appropriate method for determining arm’s length income. In an audit, the tax administration rejected one of the companies selected as a comparable on the basis that it was in a start-up and had losses for consecutive years. Quark Systems argued that once functional comparability is established, the comparable should not be rejected on grounds such as start-up phase. Quark also argued for rejection of a high-margin comparable on the basis that the company had significant controlled transactions. The Appellate Tribunal upheld the need for a proper functional analysis of the tested party and the comparables in determination of ALP and objected to the selection of comparables merely on the basis of business classification provided in the database. The case was returned to the tax administration India vs Quark Systems Pvt Ltd No 1 2012 ... Continue to full case
France vs. SA Cap Gemini, Nov. 2005, CE, No 266436

France vs. SA Cap Gemini, Nov. 2005, CE, No 266436

In Cap Gemini, the Court concluded that the tax administration did not demonstrate the “indirect transfer of benefit” in the absence of a comparability study. The transaction in question consisted of a licence of the Cap Gemini trademark and logo. The French subsidiaries were charged with a 4% royalty, whereas European and American subsidiaries were charged no or lower royalty. The court found that the value of a trademark and logo may differ depending on each situation and market. In the ruling, the court reaffirmed that a transfer pricing assessment must be based on solid evidence. Click here for translation France vs SA Cap Gemini 7 Nov 2005 No 266436 ... Continue to full case