Tag: Contract vs Conduct

TPG2022 Chapter VI Annex I example 11

TPG2022 Chapter VI Annex I example 11

35. The facts in this example are the same as in Example 9, except that Company S now enters into a three-year royalty-free agreement to market and distribute the watches in the country Y market, with no option to renew. At the end of the three-year period, Company S does not enter into a new contract with Primair. 36. Assume that it is demonstrated that independent enterprises do enter into short-term distribution agreements where they incur marketing and distribution expenses, but only where they stand to earn a reward commensurate with the functions performed, the assets used, and the risks assumed within the time period of the contract. Evidence derived from comparable independent enterprises shows that they do not invest large sums of money in developing marketing and distribution infrastructure where they obtain only a short-term marketing and distribution agreement, with the attendant risk of non-renewal without compensation. The potential short-term nature of the marketing and distribution agreement is such ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter I paragraph 1.89

Consider for example, a manufacturer, whose functional currency is US dollars, that sells goods to an associated distributor in another country, whose functional currency is euros, and the written contract states that the distributor assumes all exchange rate risks in relation to this controlled transaction. If, however, the price for the goods is charged by the manufacturer to the distributor over an extended period of time in euros, the currency of the distributor, then aspects of the written contractual terms do not reflect the actual commercial or financial relations between the parties. The assumption of risk in the transaction should be determined by the actual conduct of the parties in the context of the contractual terms, rather than by aspects of written contractual terms which are not in practice applied. The principle can be further illustrated by Example 7 in the Annex to Chapter VI, where there is an inconsistency between the contractual assumption of risk and the conduct of ... Read more

TPG2017 Chapter I paragraph 1.89

Consider for example, a manufacturer, whose functional currency is US dollars, that sells goods to an associated distributor in another country, whose functional currency is euros, and the written contract states that the distributor assumes all exchange rate risks in relation to this controlled transaction. If, however, the price for the goods is charged by the manufacturer to the distributor over an extended period of time in euros, the currency of the distributor, then aspects of the written contractual terms do not reflect the actual commercial or financial relations between the parties. The assumption of risk in the transaction should be determined by the actual conduct of the parties in the context of the contractual terms, rather than by aspects of written contractual terms which are not in practice applied. The principle can be further illustrated by Example 7 in the Annex to Chapter VI, where there is an inconsistency between the contractual assumption of risk and the conduct of ... Read more
Poland vs "Lender S.A.", June 2013, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No II FSK 2226/11

Poland vs “Lender S.A.”, June 2013, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No II FSK 2226/11

Lender S.A had granted a loan to a related entity but had not collected the agreed interest payments and not added the interest to its taxable income. The tax authorities stated that granting an interest-bearing loan to a related entity but not collecting the interest still results in taxable revenue. The reason Lender S.A. did not collect interest on the loan was due to the group relationship. Lender S.A. filed an appeal where it argued that since the interest was not received, it could not be taxed. Judgement of the Court The Supreme Administrative Court stated that the arm’s length principle applies to agreements concluded on arm’s length terms, where these are not implemented in accordance with there wording. Hence, the arm’s length standard also applies when the parties do not follow the agreement. Click here for English translation Click here for other translation II FSK 2226_11 - Wyrok NSA z 2013-06-25 ... Read more
UK vs. Duke of Westminster, May 1935, HOUSE OF LORDS, Case No. 19 TC 490, [1935] UKHL TC_19_490

UK vs. Duke of Westminster, May 1935, HOUSE OF LORDS, Case No. 19 TC 490, [1935] UKHL TC_19_490

The Duke of Westminster’s gardener was paid weekly, but to reduce tax, his solicitors drew up a deed in which it was said that the earnings were not really wages, but were an annual payment payable by weekly instalments. The tax authorities held that for tax purposes the true relationship and the true nature of these payments were decisive – substance over form. Judgment of the House of Lords The House of Lords decided in favor of the Duke of Westminster and set aside the assessment. LORD TOMLIN. “… Apart, however, from the question of contract with which I have dealt, it is said that in revenue cases there is a doctrine that the Court may ignore the legal position and regard what is called “the substance of the matter,” and that here the substance of the matter is that the annuitant was serving the Duke for something equal to his former salary or wages, and that therefore, while he ... Read more