Tag: Controlled transactions

Controlled transaction are transactions between two enterprises that are associated enterprises with respect to each other.

§ 1.482-1(i) Definitions.

The definitions set forth in paragraphs (i)(1) through (i)(10) of this section apply to this section and §§ 1.482-2 through 1.482-9. (1) Organization includes an organization of any kind, whether a sole proprietorship, a partnership, a trust, an estate, an association, or a corporation (as each is defined or understood in the Internal Revenue Code or the regulations thereunder), irrespective of the place of organization, operation, or conduct of the trade or business, and regardless of whether it is a domestic or foreign organization, whether it is an exempt organization, or whether it is a member of an affiliated group that files a consolidated U.S. income tax return, or a member of an affiliated group that does not file a consolidated U.S. income tax return. (2) Trade or business includes a trade or business activity of any kind, regardless of whether or where organized, whether owned individually or otherwise, and regardless of the place of operation. Employment for compensation will constitute a separate trade or business from the employing trade or business. (3) Taxpayer means ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(a)(1) Purpose and scope.

The purpose of section 482 is to ensure that taxpayers clearly reflect income attributable to controlled transactions and to prevent the avoidance of taxes with respect to such transactions. Section 482 places a controlled taxpayer on a tax parity with an uncontrolled taxpayer by determining the true taxable income of the controlled taxpayer. This section sets forth general principles and guidelines to be followed under section 482. Section 1.482-2 provides rules for the determination of the true taxable income of controlled taxpayers in specific situations, including controlled transactions involving loans or advances or the use of tangible property. Sections 1.482-3 through 1.482-6 provide rules for the determination of the true taxable income of controlled taxpayers in cases involving the transfer of property. Section 1.482-7T sets forth the cost sharing provisions applicable to taxable years beginning on or after January 5, 2009. Section 1.482-8 provides examples illustrating the application of the best method rule. Finally, § 1.482-9 provides rules for the determination of the true taxable income of controlled ... Read more
Italy vs Promgas s.p.a., May 2022, Supreme Court, Cases No 15668/2022

Italy vs Promgas s.p.a., May 2022, Supreme Court, Cases No 15668/2022

Promgas s.p.a. is 50% owned by the Italian company Eni s.p.a. and 50% owned by the Russian company Gazprom Export. It deals with the purchase and sale of natural gas of Russian origin destined for the Italian market. It sells the gas to a single Italian entity not belonging to the group, Edison spa, on the basis of a contract signed on 24 January 2000. In essence, Promgas s.p.a. performes intermediary function between the Russian company, Gazprom Export (exporter of the gas), and the Italian company, Edison s.p.a. (final purchaser of the gas). Following an audit for FY 2005/06, the tax authorities – based on the Transaction Net Margin Method – held that the operating margin obtained by Promgas s.p.a. (0.23% in 2025 and 0.06% in 2006) were not in line with the results that the company could have achieved at arm’s length. Applying an operating margin of l.39% resulted in a arm’s length profit of €4,227,438.07, for the year ... Read more
Poland vs M.P. sp. z o.o., March 2022, Administrative Court, Case No I SA/Bd 30/22

Poland vs M.P. sp. z o.o., March 2022, Administrative Court, Case No I SA/Bd 30/22

The Administrative Court found that a voluntary redemption of shares was not a controlled transaction covered by arm’s length provisions. A redemption is a corporation’s repurchase of all or a portion of the shares held by a shareholder at an amount not in excess of the amount stated in the articles or calculated according to a formula stated in the articles. A redemption of shares can only take place between a company and its shareholders. Hence, terms and pricing of the transaction cannot be determined based on unrelated transactions. The purpose of the redemption of shares is not to modify the amount of income achieved by the related parties by applying a non-arm’s length price. Click here for English Translation Click here for other translation Poland case I SA_Bd 30_22 - Wyrok WSA w Bydgoszczy z 2022-03-22 ... Read more
Poland vs K.O., February 2022, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No II FSK 1544/20

Poland vs K.O., February 2022, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No II FSK 1544/20

By judgment of 13 March 2020, the Provincial Administrative Court upheld the complaint filed by K.O. and revoked a decision issued by the tax authorities on the determination of the amount of the tax liability resulting from a transfer of shares between K.O. and a related party in 2016. An appeal was filed by the tax authorities with the Supreme Administrative Court in which the authorities stated that Provincial Administrative Court incorrectly had concluded that the nominal value of shares taken up by a taxpayer is not subject to market mechanisms and, therefore, the authority should not question the revenue thus generated. According to the tax authorities the taxpayer effected a transaction with a related entity of which it was the owner and determined without justification a contribution in-kind disproportionately high in relation to the shares acquired in the related entity, while the authority, taking these circumstances into account, determined a comparable uncontrolled price that the taxpayer would have obtained ... Read more
Poland vs A. Sp. z o. o., February 2022, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No II FSK 1475/19

Poland vs A. Sp. z o. o., February 2022, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No II FSK 1475/19

A. Sp. z o.o. was established to carry out an investment project consisting in construction of a shopping center. In order to raise funds, the company concluded a loan agreement. The loan agreement was guaranteed by shareholders and other related parties. By virtue of the guarantees, the guarantors became solitarily liable for the Applicant’s obligations. The guarantees were granted free of charge. A. Sp. z o.o. was not obliged to pay any remuneration or provide any other mutual benefit to the guarantors. In connection with the above description, the following questions were asked: (1) Will A. Sp. z o.o. be obliged to prepare transfer pricing documentation in connection with the gratuitous service received, and if so, both for the year in which the surety is granted to the Applicant or also for subsequent tax years during the term of the security? (2) Will A. Sp. z o.o. be obliged to disclose the event related to the free-of-charge consideration received in ... Read more
Colombia vs Petroleum Exploration International Sucursal Colombia S.A., November 2021, The Administrative Court, Case No. 25000-23-37-000-2016-01988-01(24028)

Colombia vs Petroleum Exploration International Sucursal Colombia S.A., November 2021, The Administrative Court, Case No. 25000-23-37-000-2016-01988-01(24028)

Article 260-8 of the Colombian Tax Statute established which taxpayers were obliged to file Transfer pricing documentation. The rule established two requirements for income taxpayers to be obliged to file DIIPT in the year 2010, the first is to have obtained a gross equity on 31 December of the taxable period of 100.100,000 UVT ($2,455,500,000) or gross income of 61,000 UVT ($1,497,855,000), and the second is to have carried out operations with economic associates or related parties domiciled abroad. In the present case, a Colombian branch of Petroleum Exploration International S.A presented a total gross income of $18,496,716,000 in the income tax return for 2010, and therefore complied with the first requirement. As for the second requirement, it is noted that according to the certificate of existence and legal representation of Colombian branch, it is a branch of the company Petroleum Exploration International S.A. whose principal place of business is Panama. (…) In the accounting inspection report of 2 April ... Read more
Portugal vs "A Bank SGPS, S.A.", November 2021, Supremo Tribunal Administrativo, Case No JSTA00071308

Portugal vs “A Bank SGPS, S.A.”, November 2021, Supremo Tribunal Administrativo, Case No JSTA00071308

The Tax Authority had made a transfer pricing adjustment for FY 2007 in the amount of €262,500.00 arising from the provision of a guarantee for payment granted under a credit agreement between a bank and its subsidiary. The adjustment had been determined using a CUP method where the pricing of the controlled transaction had been compared to the pricing of uncontrolled bank guarantees. The Court of first instance held that “it cannot be concluded that the transactions at issue here are comparable on the basis of the criterion adopted by the Tax Authorities referred to above. In fact, although the guarantee and the independent bank guarantee may share common features, the way in which the risk falls on the guarantor and on the guarantor of the independent bank guarantee potentially generates differences that significantly affect their comparability.” An appeal was filed by the tax authorities. Decision of Supreme Administrative Court The Court dismissed the appeal of the tax authorities. In ... Read more
Ukrain vs PJSP Gals-K, July 2021, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No 620/1767/19

Ukrain vs PJSP Gals-K, July 2021, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No 620/1767/19

Ukrainian company “PJSP Gals-K” had been involved in various controlled transactions – complex technological drilling services; sale of crude oil; transfer of fixed assets etc. The tax authority found, that prices had not been determined in accordance with the arm’s length principle and issued a tax assessment. Gals-K disagreed and filed a complaint. The Administrative Court dismissed the tax assessment and this decision was later upheld by the Administrative Court of Appeal. Judgement of the Supreme Administrative Court The Supreme Court set aside the decisions of the Court of Appeal and remanded the case to the court of first instance for a new hearing. The court considered that breaches of procedural and substantive law by both the Court of Appeal and the Court of First Instance have been committed, and the case should therefore be referred to the Court of First Instance for a new hearing. Excerpts “Thus, in order to properly resolve the dispute in this part, the courts ... Read more
Netherlands vs "Related Party B.V.", July 2021, District Court, Case No ECLI:NL:RBGEL:2021:3382

Netherlands vs “Related Party B.V.”, July 2021, District Court, Case No ECLI:NL:RBGEL:2021:3382

In 2013 “Related Party B.V” entered into an agreement with “X BV” for the provision of transportation- and support services for oil and gas. The Dutch tax authority suspected that the parties were affiliated within the meaning of Section 8b of the Corporate Income Tax Act 1969. Decision of Court The Court decided in favor of the tax authority. Based on the documents in the case, the tax authority rightly suspected that there was an affiliation within the meaning of Section 8b of the Corporate Income Tax Act. The tax authority was therefore entitled to reasonably issue information decisions for the Vpb for 2013 to 2016 inclusive. Nemo Tenetur Principle – self incrimination “Related Party B.V” argued that it’s right not to incriminate itself had been violated because the information decision(s) had been issued to examine the possibility of imposing a fine. In this regard, the court observed that pursuant to the law a taxpayer is obliged to provide the ... Read more
Poland vs Q. F. sp. z o.o., January 2021, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No II FSK 2514

Poland vs Q. F. sp. z o.o., January 2021, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No II FSK 2514

A request for an interpretation was submitted by a company in regards to financial transactions (loans and guarantees) with related parties. The requested interpretation was relevant in determining the amount of the controlled transactions and on that basis whether the taxpayer was required to prepare TP documentation or not. The company held that in determining the value of a loan transaction, only the value of interest should be taken into account. The tax authorities held that both the amount of interest and the amount of capital were to be included in amount of the transaction. Judgement of the Supreme Administrative Court The Court decided in favour of the tax authorities. Applying a linguistic interpretation, the court found no support for excluding the capital part of a loan transaction from the amount of the transaction. Click here for English Translation Click here for other translation II FSK 2514 ... Read more
Poland vs A. Sp. z o.o., March 2019, Administrative Court, Case No I SA/Rz 1178/18

Poland vs A. Sp. z o.o., March 2019, Administrative Court, Case No I SA/Rz 1178/18

A. Sp. z o.o. was established to carry out an investment project consisting in construction of a shopping center. In order to raise funds, the company concluded a loan agreement. The loan agreement was guaranteed by shareholders and other related parties. By virtue of the guarantees, the guarantors became solitarily liable for the Applicant’s obligations. The guarantees were granted free of charge. A. Sp. z o.o. was not obliged to pay any remuneration or provide any other mutual benefit to the guarantors. In connection with the above description, the following questions were asked: (1) Will A. Sp. z o.o. be obliged to prepare transfer pricing documentation in connection with the gratuitous service received, and if so, both for the year in which the surety is granted to the Applicant or also for subsequent tax years during the term of the security? (2) Will A. Sp. z o.o. be obliged to disclose the event related to the free-of-charge consideration received in ... Read more
Denmark vs. Swiss Re. February 2012, Supreme Court, SKM2012.92

Denmark vs. Swiss Re. February 2012, Supreme Court, SKM2012.92

This case concerned the Danish company, Swiss Re, Copenhagen Holding ApS, which was wholly owned by the US company, ERC Life Reinsurance Corporation. In 1999 the group considered transferring the German subsidiary, ERC Frankona Reinsurance Holding GmbH, from the US parent company to the Danish company. The value of the German company was determined to be DKK 7.8 billion. The purchase price was to be settled by the Danish Company issuing shares with a market value of DKK 4.2 billion and debt with a market value of DKK 3.6 billion. On 27 May 1999, the parent company and the Danish company considered to structure the debt as a subordinated, zero-coupon note. Compensation for the loan would be structured as a built-in capital gain in order to defer recognition of the compensation for the period 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2000. The Danish company would be unable to use a deduction in income year 1999. A built-in capital gain should ... Read more
Australia vs Commonwealth Aluminium Corporation Ltd, August 1980, HIGH COURT OF AUSTRALIA, Case No. HCA 28

Australia vs Commonwealth Aluminium Corporation Ltd, August 1980, HIGH COURT OF AUSTRALIA, Case No. HCA 28

This case is about the tax authorities power to determine a taxable income according to section 136 of the Australian Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 (Cth) which provides: “Where any business carried on in Australia – (a) is controlled principally by non-residents; (b) is carried on by a company a majority of the shares in which is held by or on behalf of non-residents; or (c) is carried on by a company which holds or on behalf of which other persons hold a majority of the shares in a non-resident company – and it appears to the Commissioner that the business produces either no taxable income or less than the amount of taxable income which might be expected to arise from that business, the person carrying on the business in Australia shall, notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, be liable to pay income tax on a taxable income of such amount of the total receipts (whether cash or credit) ... Read more