Tag: Cost Sharing Arrangement (CSA)

A Cost Sharing Arrangement (CSA) is a framework agreed among enterprises to share the costs and risks of developing, producing, or obtaining assets, services, or rights, and to determine the nature and extent of the interests of each participant in the results of the activity of developing, producing, or obtaining those assets, services, or rights. Se also Cost Contribution Arrangement (CCA).

§ 1.482-7(m)(3) Special rule for certain periodic adjustments.

The periodic adjustment rules in paragraph (i)(6) of this section (rather than the rules of § 1.482-4(f)(2)) shall apply to PCTs that occur on or after the date of a material change in the scope of the CSA from its scope as of January 5, 2009. A material change in scope would include a material expansion of the activities undertaken beyond the scope of the intangible development area, as described in former § 1.482-7(b)(4)(iv). For this purpose, a contraction of the scope of a CSA, absent a material expansion into one or more lines of research and development beyond the scope of the intangible development area, does not constitute a material change in scope of the CSA. Whether a material change in scope has occurred is determined on a cumulative basis. Therefore, a series of expansions, any one of which is not a material expansion by itself, may collectively constitute a material expansion ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(m)(2) Transitional modification of applicable provisions.

For purposes of this paragraph (m), conformity and substantial compliance with the provisions of this section shall be determined with the following modifications: (i) CSTs and PCTs occurring prior to January 5, 2009, shall be subject to the provisions of former § 1.482-7 rather than this section. (ii) Except to the extent provided in paragraph (m)(3) of this section, PCTs that occur under a CSA that was a qualified cost sharing arrangement under the provisions of former § 1.482-7 and remained in effect on January 5, 2009, shall be subject to the periodic adjustment rules of § 1.482-4(f)(2) rather than the rules of paragraph (i)(6) of this section. (iii) Paragraphs (b)(1)(iii) and (b)(4) of this section shall not apply. (iv) Paragraph (k)(1)(ii)(D) of this section shall not apply. (v) Paragraphs (k)(1)(ii)(H) and (I) of this section shall be construed as applying only to transactions entered into on or after January 5, 2009. (vi) The deadline for recordation of the revised written contractual agreement pursuant to paragraph (k)(1)(iii) of this section shall be no later than July 6, 2009. (vii) Paragraphs (k)(2)(ii)(G) through (J) of this section shall be construed as ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(m)(1) In general.

An arrangement in existence on January 5, 2009, will be considered a CSA, as described under paragraph (b) of this section, if, prior to such date, it was a qualified cost sharing arrangement under the provisions of § 1.482-7 (as contained in the 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of January 1, 1996, hereafter referred to as “former § 1.482-7”), but only if the written contract, as described in paragraph (k)(1) of this section, is amended, if necessary, to conform with, and only if the activities of the controlled participants substantially comply with, the provisions of this section, as modified by paragraphs (m)(2) and (m)(3) of this section, by July 6, 2009 ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(l) Effective/applicability dates.

Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (l), this section applies on December 16, 2011. Paragraphs (g)(2)(v)(B)(2), (g)(4)(vi)(F)(2), and (g)(4)(viii), Example 8 of this section apply to taxable years beginning on or after December 19, 2011. Paragraphs (g)(4)(v) and (g)(4)(viii), Example 9 apply to taxable years beginning on or after August 27, 2013 ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(4)(iv) Example 2.

The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that a year has passed and C, which files a U.S. tax return, joined the CSA on May 9, Year 2. To comply with the annual filing requirement described in paragraph (k)(4)(iii)(B) of this section, A and B must each attach copies of their respective CSA Statements (as filed for Year 1) to their respective Year 2 income tax returns, along with a schedule updated appropriately to reflect the changes in information described in paragraph (k)(4)(ii) of this section resulting from the addition of C to the CSA. To comply with both the 90-day rule described in paragraph (k)(4)(iii)(A) of this section and the annual filing requirement described in paragraph (k)(4)(iii)(B) of this section, C must file a CSA Statement no later than 90 days after May 9, Year 2 (August 7, Year 2), and must attach a copy of such CSA Statement to its Year 2 income tax return ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(4)(iv) Example 1.

A and B, both of which file U.S. tax returns, agree to share the costs of developing a new chemical formula in accordance with the provisions of this section. On March 30, Year 1, A and B record their agreement in a written contract styled, “Cost Sharing Agreement.” The contract applies by its terms to IDCs occurring after March 1, Year 1. The first IDCs to which the CSA applies occurred on March 15, Year 1. To comply with paragraph (k)(4)(iii)(A) of this section, A and B individually must file separate CSA Statements no later than 90 days after March 15, Year 1 (June 13, Year 1). Further, to comply with paragraph (k)(4)(iii)(B) of this section, A and B must attach copies of their respective CSA Statements to their respective Year 1 U.S. income tax returns ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(4)(iii)(B)(2) Special filing rule for annual return requirement.

If a controlled participant is not required to file a U.S. income tax return, the participant must ensure that the copy or copies of the CSA Statement and any updates are attached to Schedule M of any Form 5471, any Form 5472 “Information Return of a Foreign Owned Corporation,” or any Form 8865 “Return of U.S. Persons With Respect to Certain Foreign Partnerships,” filed with respect to that participant ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(4)(iii)(B)(1) In general.

Each controlled participant must attach to its U.S. income tax return, for each taxable year for the duration of the CSA, a copy of the original CSA Statement that the controlled participant filed in accordance with the 90-day rule of paragraph (k)(4)(iii)(A) of this section. In addition, the controlled participant must update the information reflected on the original CSA Statement annually by attaching a schedule that documents changes in such information over time ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(4)(iii)(A) 90-day rule.

Each controlled participant must file its original CSA Statement with the Internal Revenue Service Ogden Campus (addressed as follows: “Attn: CSA Statements, Mail Stop 4912, Internal Revenue Service, 1973 North Rulon White Blvd., Ogden, Utah 84404-0040”), no later than 90 days after the first occurrence of an IDC to which the newly-formed CSA applies, as described in paragraph (k)(1)(iii)(A) of this section, or, in the case of a taxpayer that became a controlled participant after the formation of the CSA, no later than 90 days after such taxpayer became a controlled participant. A CSA Statement filed in accordance with this paragraph (k)(4)(iii)(A) must be dated and signed, under penalties of perjury, by an officer of the controlled participant who is duly authorized (under local law) to sign the statement on behalf of the controlled participant ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(4)(ii) Content of CSA Statement.

The CSA Statement of each controlled participant must – (A) State that the participant is a controlled participant in a CSA; (B) Provide the controlled participant’s taxpayer identification number; (C) List the other controlled participants in the CSA, the country of organization of each such participant, and the taxpayer identification number of each such participant; (D) Specify the earliest date that any IDC described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section occurred; and (E) Indicate the date on which the controlled participants formed (or revised) the CSA and, if different from such date, the date on which the controlled participants recorded the CSA (or any revision) contemporaneously in accordance with paragraphs (k)(1)(i) and (iii) of this section ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(4)(i) CSA Statement.

Each controlled participant must file with the Internal Revenue Service, in the manner described in this paragraph (k)(4), a “Statement of Controlled Participant to § 1.482-7 Cost Sharing Arrangement” (CSA Statement) that complies with the requirements of this paragraph (k)(4) ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(3)(ii) Reliance on financial accounting.

For purposes of this section, the controlled participants may not rely solely upon financial accounting to establish satisfaction of the accounting requirements of this paragraph (k)(3). Rather, the method of accounting must clearly reflect income. Thor Power Tools Co. v. Commissioner, 439 U.S. 522 (1979) ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(3)(i) In general.

The controlled participants must maintain books and records (and related or underlying data and information) that are sufficient to – (A) Establish that the controlled participants have used (and are using) a consistent method of accounting to measure costs and benefits; (B) Permit verification that the amount of any contingent PCT Payments due have been (and are being) properly determined; (C) Translate foreign currencies on a consistent basis; and (D) To the extent that the method of accounting used materially differs from U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, explain any such material differences ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(2)(iii)(B) Production of documentation.

Each controlled participant must provide to the Commissioner, within 30 days of a request, the items described in this paragraph (k)(2) and paragraph (k)(3) of this section. The time for compliance described in this paragraph (k)(2)(iii)(B) may be extended at the discretion of the Commissioner ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(2)(ii) Additional CSA documentation requirements.

The controlled participants to a CSA must timely update and maintain documentation sufficient to – (A) Describe the current scope of the IDA and identify – (1) Any additions or subtractions from the list of reasonably anticipated cost shared intangibles reported pursuant to paragraph (k)(1)(ii)(B) of this section; (2) Any cost shared intangible, together with each controlled participant’s interest therein; and (3) Any further development of intangibles already developed under the CSA or of specified applications of such intangible which has been removed from the IDA (see paragraphs (d)(1)(ii) and (j)(1)(i) of this section for the definitions of reasonably anticipated cost shared intangible and cost shared intangible) and the steps (including any accounting classifications and allocations) taken to implement such removal; (B) Establish that each controlled participant reasonably anticipates that it will derive benefits from exploiting cost shared intangibles; (C) Describe the functions and risks that each controlled participant has undertaken during the term of the CSA; (D) Provide an overview of each controlled participant’s business segments, including an analysis of the economic ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(2)(i) In general.

The controlled participants must timely update and maintain sufficient documentation to establish that the participants have met the CSA contractual requirements of paragraph (k)(1) of this section and the additional CSA documentation requirements of this paragraph (k)(2) ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(1)(iv)(B) Example 2.

An arrangement that purports to be a CSA provides that PCT Payments with respect to a particular platform contribution shall be contingent payments equal to 10% of sales of products that incorporate cost shared intangibles. The contract terms further provide that the controlled participants must adjust such contingent payments in accordance with a formula set forth in the terms. During the first three years of the arrangement, the controlled participants fail to make the adjustments required by the terms with respect to the PCT Payments. The Commissioner may determine, based on the facts and circumstances, that – (i) The contingent payment terms with respect to the platform contribution do not have economic substance because the controlled participants did not act in accordance with their upfront risk allocation; or (ii) The contract terms reflect the economic substance of the arrangement and, therefore, the actual payments must be adjusted to conform to the terms ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(1)(iv)(B) Example 1.

The contractual provisions recorded upon formation of an arrangement that purports to be a CSA provide that PCT Payments with respect to a particular platform contribution will consist of payments contingent on sales. Contrary to the contractual provisions, the PCT Payments actually made are contingent on profits. Because the controlled participants’ actual conduct is different from the contractual terms, the Commissioner may determine, based on the facts and circumstances, that – (i) The actual payments have economic substance and, therefore, impute payment terms in the CSA consistent with the actual payments; or (ii) The contract terms reflect the economic substance of the arrangement and, therefore, the actual payments must be adjusted to conform to the terms ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(1)(iv)(B) Examples.

The following examples illustrate the principles of this paragraph (k)(1)(iv). In each example, it is assumed that the Commissioner will exercise the discretion granted pursuant to paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section to apply the provisions of this section to the arrangement that purports to be a CSA ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(1)(iv)(A) In general.

The provisions of a written contract described in this paragraph (k)(1) and of the additional documentation described in paragraph (k)(2) of this section must be clear and unambiguous. The provisions will be interpreted by reference to the economic substance of the transaction and the actual conduct of the controlled participants. See § 1.482-1(d)(3)(ii)(B) (Identifying contractual terms). Accordingly, the Commissioner may impute contractual terms in a CSA consistent with the economic substance of the CSA and may disregard contractual terms that lack economic substance. An allocation of risk between controlled participants after the outcome of such risk is known or reasonably knowable lacks economic substance. See § 1.482-1(d)(3)(iii)(B) (Identification of taxpayer that bears risk). A contractual term that is disregarded due to a lack of economic substance does not satisfy a contractual requirement set forth in this paragraph (k)(1) or documentation requirement set forth in paragraph (k)(2) of this section. See paragraph (b)(5) of this section for the treatment of an arrangement among controlled taxpayers that fails to comply with the ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(1)(iii)(B) Example.

Companies A and B, both of which are members of the same controlled group, commence an IDA on March 1, Year 1. Company A pays the first IDCs in relation to the IDA, as cash salaries to A’s research staff, for the staff’s work during the first week of March, Year 1. A and B, however, do not sign and date any written contractual agreement until August 1, Year 1, whereupon they execute a “Cost Sharing Agreement” that purports to be “effective as of” March 1 of Year 1. The arrangement fails the requirement that the participants record their arrangement in a written contractual agreement that is contemporaneous with the formation of a CSA. The arrangement has failed to meet the requirements set forth in paragraph (b)(2) of this section and, pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section, cannot be a CSA ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(1)(iii)(A) In general.

For purposes of this paragraph (k)(1), a written contractual agreement is contemporaneous with the formation (or revision) of a CSA if, and only if, the controlled participants record the CSA, in its entirety, in a document that they sign and date no later than 60 days after the first occurrence of any IDC described in paragraph (d) of this section to which such agreement (or revision) is to apply ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(1)(ii) Contractual provisions.

The written contract described in this paragraph (k)(1) must include provisions that – (A) List the controlled participants and any other members of the controlled group that are reasonably anticipated to benefit from the use of the cost shared intangibles, including the address of each domestic entity and the country of organization of each foreign entity; (B) Describe the scope of the IDA to be undertaken and each reasonably anticipated cost shared intangible or class of reasonably anticipated cost shared intangibles; (C) Specify the functions and risks that each controlled participant will undertake in connection with the CSA; (D) Divide among the controlled participants all divisional interests in cost shared intangibles and specify each controlled participant’s divisional interest in the cost shared intangibles, as described in paragraphs (b)(1)(iii) and (4) of this section, that it will own and exploit without any further obligation to compensate any other controlled participant for such interest; (E) Provide a method to calculate the controlled participants’ RAB shares, based on factors that can reasonably be expected ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k)(1)(i) In general.

A CSA must be recorded in writing in a contract that is contemporaneous with the formation (and any revision) of the CSA and that includes the contractual provisions described in this paragraph (k)(1) ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(k) CSA administrative requirements.

A controlled participant meets the requirements of this paragraph if it substantially complies, respectively, with the CSA contractual, documentation, accounting, and reporting requirements of paragraphs (k)(1) through (4) of this section ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(j)(3)(iii) Example 3.

(i) Four members (A, B, C, and D) of a controlled group form a CSA to develop the next generation technology for their business. Based on RAB shares, the participants agree to bear shares of the costs incurred during the term of the agreement in the following percentages: A 40%; B 15%; C 25%; and D 20%. The arm’s length values of the platform contributions they respectively own are in the following amounts for the taxable year: A 80X; B 40X; C 30X; and D 30X. The provisional (before offsets) and final PCT Payments among A, B, C, and D are shown in the table as follows: (All amounts stated in X’s) A B C D Payments <40> <21> <37.5> <30> Receipts 48 34 22.5 24 Final 8 13 <15> <6> (ii) The first row/first column shows A’s provisional PCT Payment equal to the product of 100X (sum of 40X, 30X, and 30X) and A’s RAB share of 40%. The ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(j)(3)(iii) Example 2.

The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that the 100X of costs borne by USP consist of 5X of costs incurred by USP in the United States and 95X of arm’s length rental charge, as described in paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section, for the use of a facility in the United States. The depreciation deduction attributable to the U.S. facility is 7X. The 20X net payment by FS to USP will first be applied in reduction pro rata of the 5X deduction for costs and the 7X depreciation deduction attributable to the U.S. facility. The 8X remainder will be treated as rent for the U.S. facility ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(j)(3)(iii) Example 1.

U.S. Parent (USP) and its wholly owned Foreign Subsidiary (FS) form a CSA to develop a miniature widget, the Small R. Based on RAB shares, USP agrees to bear 40% and FS to bear 60% of the costs incurred during the term of the agreement. The principal IDCs are operating costs incurred by FS in Country Z of 100X annually, and costs incurred by USP in the United States also of 100X annually. Of the total costs of 200X, USP’s share is 80X and FS’s share is 120X so that FS must make a payment to USP of 20X. The payment will be treated as a reimbursement of 20X of USP’s costs in the United States. Accordingly, USP’s Form 1120 will reflect an 80X deduction on account of activities performed in the United States for purposes of allocation and apportionment of the deduction to source. The Form 5471 “Information Return of U.S. Persons With Respect to Certain Foreign Corporations” for ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(j)(3)(ii) PCT Payments.

A PCT Payor’s payment required under paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section is deemed to be reduced to the extent of any payments owed to it under such paragraph from other controlled participants. Each PCT Payment received by a PCT Payee will be treated as coming pro rata out of payments made by all PCT Payors. PCT Payments will be characterized consistently with the designation of the type of transaction pursuant to paragraphs (c)(3) and (k)(2)(ii)(H) of this section. Depending on such designation, such payments will be treated as either consideration for a transfer of an interest in intangible property or for services ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(j)(3)(i) CST Payments.

CST Payments generally will be considered the payor’s costs of developing intangibles at the location where such development is conducted. For these purposes, IDCs borne directly by a controlled participant that are deductible are deemed to be reduced to the extent of any CST Payments owed to it by other controlled participants pursuant to the CSA. Each cost sharing payment received by a payee will be treated as coming pro rata from payments made by all payors and will be applied pro rata against the deductions for the taxable year that the payee is allowed in connection with the IDCs. Payments received in excess of such deductions will be treated as in consideration for use of the land and tangible property furnished for purposes of the CSA by the payee. For purposes of the research credit determined under section 41, CST Payments among controlled participants will be treated as provided for intra-group transactions in § 1.41-6(i). Any payment made or received ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(j)(2)(iii) Partnership.

A CSA, or an arrangement to which the Commissioner applies the rules of this section, will not be treated as a partnership to which the rules of subchapter K of the Internal Revenue Code apply. See § 301.7701-1(c) of this chapter ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(j)(2)(ii) Trade or business.

A participant that is a foreign corporation or nonresident alien individual will not be treated as engaged in a trade or business within the United States solely by reason of its participation in a CSA. See generally § 1.864-2(a) ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(j)(2)(i) Consolidated group.

For purposes of this section, all members of the same consolidated group shall be treated as one taxpayer. For these purposes, the term consolidated group means all members of a group of controlled entities created or organized within a single country and subjected to an income tax by such country on the basis of their combined income ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(j)(1)(ii) Example 5.

Reasonably anticipated benefits. Controlled parties A and B enter into a cost sharing arrangement to develop product and process intangibles for an already existing Product P. Without such intangibles, A and B would each reasonably anticipate revenue, in present value terms, of $100M from sales of Product P until it became obsolete. With the intangibles, A and B each reasonably anticipate selling the same number of units each year, but reasonably anticipate that the price will be higher. Because the particular product intangible is more highly regarded in A’s market, A reasonably anticipates an increase of $20M in present value revenue from the product intangible, while B reasonably anticipates only an increase of $10M. Further, A and B each reasonably anticipate spending an extra $5M present value in production costs to include the feature embodying the product intangible. Finally, A and B each reasonably anticipate saving $2M present value in production costs by using the process intangible. A and B ... Read more