Tag: CUP method

The CUP methos is a transfer pricing method that compares the price for property or services transferred in a controlled transaction to the price charged for property or services transferred in a comparable uncontrolled transaction in comparable circumstances.

Zambia vs Mopani Copper Mines Plc., May 2020, Supreme Court of Zambia, Case No 2017/24

Zambia vs Mopani Copper Mines Plc., May 2020, Supreme Court of Zambia, Case No 2017/24

Following an audit of Mopani Copper Mines Plc. the Zambian Revenue Authority (ZRA) found that the price of copper sold to related party Glencore International AG had been significantly lower than the price of copper sold to third parties. A tax assessment was issued where the ZRA concluded that the internal pricing had not been determined in accordance with the arm’s length principle, and further that one of the main purposes for the mis-pricing had been to reduce tax liabilities. Mopani Copper Mines Plc. first appealed the decision to Zambia’s Tax Appeal Tribunal, and after a decision was handed down by the Tribunal in favor of the ZRA, a new appeal was filed with the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court dismissed Mopani’s appeal and ruled in favor of the ZRA. App-024-2017-Mopani-Copper-Mines-Plc-Vs-Zambia-Revenue-Authority-20th-May-2020-Mambilima-Cj-Malila-And-Mutuna-JJS ... Continue to full case
Panama vs "AC S.A.", January 2020, Administrative Tribunal, Case No TAT-RF-002

Panama vs “AC S.A.”, January 2020, Administrative Tribunal, Case No TAT-RF-002

“AC S.A” is engaged in sale of ventilation, heating and cooling equipment in Panama. AC S.A pays royalties for use of IP owned by the parent company of the AC Group. Following a audit carried out by the Tax Administration in Panama it was concluded that the profits of AC S.A 2.04% was below the arm’s length range determined by application of a TNM-method. After removing non-comparables from the benchmark study provided by the company, the interquartile range had a lower quartile of 6.15% and a median of 8.41%. Hence an assessment of additional taxable income was issued for FY 2014, bringing the profits of AC S.A up to the median (8.41%) of the adjusted benchmark. AC Corp disagreed with the assessment and brought the case before the Administrative Tribunal. The Administrative Tribunal decided in favor of the tax authorities, but made adjustment to the benchmark resulting in a lower quartile of 3.16% and a median of 6.2%. The adjustment ... Continue to full case
European Commission vs. Luxembourg and Fiat Chrysler Finance Europe, September 2019, General Court of the European Union, Case No. T-755/15

European Commission vs. Luxembourg and Fiat Chrysler Finance Europe, September 2019, General Court of the European Union, Case No. T-755/15

On 3 September 2012, the Luxembourg tax authorities issued a tax ruling in favour of Fiat Chrysler Finance Europe (‘FFT’), an undertaking in the Fiat group that provided treasury and financing services to the group companies established in Europe. The tax ruling at issue endorsed a method for determining FFT’s remuneration for these services, which enabled FFT to determine its taxable profit on a yearly basis for corporate income tax in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. In 2015, the Commission concluded that the tax ruling constituted State aid under Article 107 TFEU and that it was operating aid that was incompatible with the internal market. It also noted that the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg had not notified it of the proposed tax ruling and had not complied with the standstill obligation. The Commission found that the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was required to recover the unlawful and incompatible aid from FFT. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and FFT each brought ... Continue to full case
European Commission vs. The Netherlands and Starbucks, September 2019, General Court of the European Union, Case No. T-760/15

European Commission vs. The Netherlands and Starbucks, September 2019, General Court of the European Union, Case No. T-760/15

In 2008, the Netherlands tax authorities concluded an advance pricing arrangement (APA) with Starbucks Manufacturing EMEA BV (Starbucks BV), part of the Starbucks group, which, inter alia, roasts coffees. The objective of that arrangement was to determine Starbucks BV’s remuneration for its production and distribution activities within the group. Thereafter, Starbucks BV’s remuneration served to determine annually its taxable profit on the basis of Netherlands corporate income tax. In addition, the APA endorsed the amount of the royalty paid by Starbucks BV to Alki, another entity of the same group, for the use of Starbucks’ roasting IP. More specifically, the APA provided that the amount of the royalty to be paid to Alki corresponded to Starbucks BV’s residual profit. The amount was determined by deducting Starbucks BV’s remuneration, calculated in accordance with the APA, from Starbucks BV’s operating profit. In 2015, the Commission found that the APA constituted aid incompatible with the internal market and ordered the recovery of that ... Continue to full case
Denmark vs MAN Energy Solutions, September 2019, Supreme Court, Case No BS-4280-2019-HJR

Denmark vs MAN Energy Solutions, September 2019, Supreme Court, Case No BS-4280-2019-HJR

A Danish subsidiary in the German MAN group was the owner of certain intangible assets. The German parent, acting as an intermediate for the Danish subsidiary, licensed rights in those intangibles to other parties. In 2002-2005, the Danish subsidiary received royalty payments corresponding to the prices agreed between the German parent company and independent parties for use of the intangibles. The group had requested an adjustment of the royalty payments to the Danish subsidiary due to withholding taxes paid on inter-company license fees received by the German Parent. This was rejected by the Danish tax authorities. The Supreme Court found no basis for an adjustment for withholding taxes as the agreed prices between the German parent and the Danish Subsidiary matched the market price paid by independent parties. Click here for translation Denmark vs MAN Energy Solutions, September 2019, Supreme Court, Case No BS-4280-2019-HJR ... Continue to full case
Argentina vs Malteria Pampa S.A., February 2019, Tax Court, Case No 35.098-A

Argentina vs Malteria Pampa S.A., February 2019, Tax Court, Case No 35.098-A

Malteria Pampa S.A in Argentina exported malt to a related intermediary in Uruguay that in turn sold on the goods to the brewery in Brazil at a higher price. The tax authorities applied the Sixth method and issued an assessment where the export price was determined based on the latter price used in the transaction with the brewery in Brazil and a substantial fine was also issued to the Malteria Pampa S.A. for non compliance. Decision of the Tax Court “That the factual and legal points considered by the customs verification – corroborated in this pronouncement – complied with the application parameters of the TP rules invoked in the Technical Report, forming a solid conviction that the transactional prices of the sale declared in the field “Merchandise Value” of the PE 07-003-EC01-004994-P and PE N° 07-003- EC01-004995-Z of Maltería Pampa S. A. are manifestly inaccurate, constituting an under-invoicing that causes the plaintiff to engage in the conduct punishable by Article 954(1)(c) ... Continue to full case
Finland vs A Group, December 2018, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No. KHO:2018:173

Finland vs A Group, December 2018, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No. KHO:2018:173

During fiscal years 2006–2008, A-Group had been manufacturing and selling products in the construction industry – insulation and other building components. License fees received by the parent company A OY from the manufacturing companies had been determined by application of the CUP method. The remuneration of the sales companies in the group had been determined by application of the resale price method. The Finnish tax administration, tax tribunal and administrative court all found that the comparable license agreements chosen with regard to determining the intercompany license fees had such differences regarding products, contract terms and market areas that they were incomparable. With regard to the sale of the finished products, they found that the resale price method had not been applied on a sufficiently reliable basis. By reference to the 2010 version of the OECD’s Transfer Pricing Guidelines, they considered the best method for determining the arm’s length remuneration of the group companies was the residual profit split method. The ... Continue to full case

Russia vs OJSC Mostovsky, January 2018, Court of Appeal, Case No. A23-5278/2016

OJSC Mostovsky was engaged in the extraction of sand for construction. The sand was sold to related parties who then resold the sand to final customers. The price paid by the final customers was significantly higher than price paid to Mostovsky by the related intermediaries. Following an audit for 2012-2013, the tax authority held that the setup using intermediate re-sellers was artificial and constructed to obtain an unjustified tax benefit. An assessment was issued based on the “subsequent sale price-method”. Mostovsky disapproved of the assessment and brought the case to court. In their court filing they proposed use of the CUP method. The court found that Mostovsky’s transfer prices had not being arm’s length and that an unjustified tax benefit had been obtained, but disagreed with the method chosen by the tax authority. The “Subsequent Selling Price-method” had not been applied correctly by the tax authority, since: – the inapplicability of the CUP method had not been properly justified; – ... Continue to full case
Norway vs. A AS, October 2017, Tax Tribunal, NS 71/2017

Norway vs. A AS, October 2017, Tax Tribunal, NS 71/2017

A Norwegian company, A, first acquired shares in Company C from a unrelated party D for tNKR 625. Company A then transferred the acquired shares in C to a subsidiary E, a shell company established by C for the purpose of the transaction. Company A then sold the shares in subsidiary E to the unrelated party D, from which it had originally bought the shares in C, for tNKR 3830, a price almost six times higher than the acquisition price, in a tax free transfer. Based on these facts, the Norwegian tax administration adjusted the price of the intra-group transfer shares in C from A to E. The Norwegian tax tribunal decided that the valuation af the shares in the intra-group transfer could be based on a linear appreciation in the share value. Click here for translation Norway vs AS 27 november 2017 SKATTEKLAGENEMDA NS 71-2017 ... Continue to full case
European Commission vs. The Netherlands and Starbucks, March 2017 and October 2015, State Aid Investigation

European Commission vs. The Netherlands and Starbucks, March 2017 and October 2015, State Aid Investigation

The European Commission’s investigation on granting of selective tax advantages to Starbucks BV, cf. EU state aid rules. EU-vs-Starbucks-March-2017-State-Aid-investigation-2 EU-Starbucks-2015 ... Continue to full case
Spain vs. Schwepps (Citresa), February 2017, Spanish Supreme Court, case nr. 293/2017

Spain vs. Schwepps (Citresa), February 2017, Spanish Supreme Court, case nr. 293/2017

The Spanish Tax administration made an income adjustment of Citresa (a Spanish subsidiary of the Schweeps Group) Corporate Income Tax for FY 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, resulting in a tax liability of €38.6 millon. Citresa entered into a franchise agreement and a contract manufacturing agreement with Schweppes International Limited (a related party resident in the Netherlands). The transactions between the two group companies were not found to be in accordance with the arm’s length principle. The issue under dispute was the use of TNMM introduced in Spain in 2006. The taxpayer had used the CUP method to verify the arm’s length nature of the transaction while the Spanish Tax administration found it more appropriate to use the TNMM. Prior to 1 December 2006, the Spanish Corporate Income Tax Act (CIT) established three methods of pricing related transactions (the “Comparable Uncontrolled Price Method”, the “Cost Plus Method” and the “Resale Price Method”) and if none were applicable it established the application of the “Transactional Profit Split Method” ... Continue to full case
Russia vs Dulisma Oil, January 2017, Russian Court Case No. A40-123426 / 16-140-1066

Russia vs Dulisma Oil, January 2017, Russian Court Case No. A40-123426 / 16-140-1066

This case relates to sales of crude oil from the Russian company, Dulisma Oil,  to an unrelated trading company, Concept Oil Ltd, registered in Hong Kong. The Russian tax authorities found that the price at which oil was sold deviated from quotations published by the Platts price reporting agency. They found that the prices for particular deliveries had been lower than the arm’s length price and issued a tax assessment and penalties of RUB 177 million. Dulisma Oil had set the prices using quotations published by Platts, which is a common practice in crude oil trading. The contract price was determined as the mean of average quotations for Dubai crude on publication days agreed upon by the parties, minus a differential determined before the delivery date “on the basis of the situation prevailing on the market”. Transfer pricing documentation had not been prepared, and the company also failed to explain the method by which the price had been calculated and how the price ... Continue to full case

Venezuela vs. Sodexho, 15. Dec 2016, Tax Court of Caracas

Sodexho Venezuela had appealed an adjustment made under the Venezuelan transfer pricing rules. The tax authorities claimed that the interest rate charged by Sodexho on a loan, made to a related party outside Venezuela, was not at arm’s-length. The tax authorities claimed that when applying the CUP method and comparing the controlled transaction with an uncontrolled transaction, Sodexho Pass Venezuela should have used an active rate such as the prime rate. The tax court ruled that Sodexho had correctly applied the CUP method and therefore cancelled the transfer pricing adjustment ... Continue to full case
Ecuador vs Cartorama C.A., May 2016, National Court, Case No. 0119-2015

Ecuador vs Cartorama C.A., May 2016, National Court, Case No. 0119-2015

Cartorama C.A. had been granted extensive credits by a related party Universal Paper S.A. The tax administration (SRI) claimed that no supplier would grant such credits to Cartorama given the company’s financial situation. Hence the loan was instead considered a equity contribution from Universal Paper S.A. and tax deductions claimed by Cartorama C.A. for interest payments for fiscal years 2005 and 2006 were disallowed. The Company disagreed with the assessment at brought the case to the court. The regional court held in favor of Cartorama C.A. and annulled the assessment, but this decision was then appealed by the tax authorities before the National Court. Judgment of the Court The National Court dismissed the decision of the regional court and confirmed the validity and legitimacy of the assessments issued by the Regional Director of the Internal Revenue Service. Click here for English Translation Click here for other Translations Equador Corte nacional RECURSO DE CASACIÓN 488 2012 ... Continue to full case
France vs. Sté Amycel France, 16 March 2016, CE, No 372372),

France vs. Sté Amycel France, 16 March 2016, CE, No 372372),

In Sté Amycel France the Court held that the Tax Administration must use an “appropriate” comparable when making transfer pricing adjustments. The French company was selling goods to both group companies and unrelated final customers. The tax administration had used a transaction with the third party customers as an internal comparable. However, as the related companies were acting as distributors, the comparison with the pricing applied to a third party customers was considered inappropriate for the purposes of assessing an arm’s length dealing. The court found that the pricing difference actually reflected the fact that the contractual relationship in the two situations was not comparable. Click here for translation France vs Amycel France _16_03_2016_CE no 372372 ... Continue to full case
Canada vs. Marzen Artistic Aluminum. January 2016

Canada vs. Marzen Artistic Aluminum. January 2016

The intercompany transactions at issue involved fees paid to the company’s wholly-owned Barbados based subsidiary during taxation years 2000 and 2001 for sales, marketing and support services. The Tax Court of Canada had determined that it was appropriate to apply the CUP method rather than the TNMM, which was advocated by the company’s expert. Canada’s Federal Court of Appeal upheld the decision by the Tax Court of Canada, which in 2014 ruled that the Canada Revenue Agency had largely been correct in reassessing the taxable income of Marzen Artistic Aluminum Ltd. Canada vs Marzen-v-the-Queen ... Continue to full case
Italy vs. ILPEA SPA, July 2015, Supreme Court 15298

Italy vs. ILPEA SPA, July 2015, Supreme Court 15298

This case is about an Italian company, ILPEA S.p.A, transactions with it’s US subsidiary. The company stated that there were substantial difference between the products sold to its subsidiary in the United States and the benchmark transactions considered by the Tax Administration: quality of the products, volumes of sales, terms of sale. These differences affected the pricing, so that these transactions could not be compared with other transactions with independent parties. The Court found that the transactions carried out with controlled companies must be evaluated according to the “normal value”, defined as the average price charged for similar goods or services with independent parties and at the same marketing stage. Therefore, “normal value” is considered to be the ordinary prices of goods and services charged at arm’s length conditions, referring, as much as possible, to “pricelists” and “rates”. The Court also stated that the tax administration does not have to prove existence of tax evation, but only the existence of ... Continue to full case
Italy vs SAME DEUTZ FAHR ITALIA s.p.a, July 2015, Supreme Court, no 15282

Italy vs SAME DEUTZ FAHR ITALIA s.p.a, July 2015, Supreme Court, no 15282

This case is about methods applicable for determination of “normal value” in transactions between related companies; the Comparable Uncontrolled Price method (CUP). Click here for translation Italy Supreme-Court-21st-July-2015-n.-15282 ... Continue to full case
Canada vs. Skechers USA Canada Inc. March 2015, Federal Court of Appeal

Canada vs. Skechers USA Canada Inc. March 2015, Federal Court of Appeal

In this case the Federal Court of Appeal upheld the decision of the Canadian International Trade Tribunal in which the tribunal upheld seven decisions – one for each of the years 2005 through 2011 – of the Canada Border Services Agency under subsection 60(4) of Canada’s Customs Act. Skechers Canada, a subsidiary of Skechers USA, purchases footwear to sell in Canada from its parent at a price equal to the price paid by Skechers US to its manufacturers, the cost of shipping the foodware to the US and warehousing, and an arm’s length profit. Skechers Canada also makes payments to Skechers US pursuant to a cost sharing agreement to compensate the parent for activities associated with the development and maintenance of the Skechers brand and to the creation and sale of footwear. The Court ruled that CSA payments relating to research, design, and development (R&D) were “in respect of” the goods sold for export into Canada and thus part of the “price paid or payable” for ... Continue to full case
Italy vs. Solvay s.a., October 2013, Supreme Court, 24005

Italy vs. Solvay s.a., October 2013, Supreme Court, 24005

This case is about transfer pricing methods and the use of the comparable uncontrolled price method. The Supreme Court affirmed that regarding the determination of the normal value of goods and services, the transfer pricing provisions refer to article 9 of the CTA, which recognizes, among the methods proposed by the OECD in the Guidelines, the traditional “comparable uncontrolled price method” Click here for translation Italy Supreme-Court-23-October-2013-No.-24005.pdf ... Continue to full case