Tag: Determination of taxable income

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(v)(B) Example.

(i) FS is a foreign subsidiary of P, a U.S. corporation. P manufactures and sells household appliances. FS operates as P’s exclusive distributor in Europe. P annually establishes the price for each of its appliances sold to FS as part of its annual budgeting, production allocation and scheduling, and performance evaluation processes. FS’s aggregate gross margin earned in its distribution business is 18%. (ii) ED is an uncontrolled European distributor of competing household appliances. After adjusting for minor differences in the level of inventory, volume of sales, and warranty programs conducted by FS and ED, ED’s aggregate gross margin is also 18%. Thus, the district director may conclude that the aggregate prices charged by P for its appliances sold to FS are arm’s length, without determining whether the budgeting, production, and performance evaluation processes of P are similar to such processes used by ED ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(v)(A) In general.

In evaluating whether the result of a controlled transaction is arm’s length, it is not necessary for the district director to determine whether the method or procedure that a controlled taxpayer employs to set the terms for its controlled transactions corresponds to the method or procedure that might have been used by a taxpayer dealing at arm’s length with an uncontrolled taxpayer. Rather, the district director will evaluate the result achieved rather than the method the taxpayer used to determine its prices ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iv) Product lines and statistical techniques.

The methods described in §§ 1.482-2 through 1.482-6 are generally stated in terms of individual transactions. However, because a taxpayer may have controlled transactions involving many different products, or many separate transactions involving the same product, it may be impractical to analyze every individual transaction to determine its arm’s length price. In such cases, it is permissible to evaluate the arm’s length results by applying the appropriate methods to the overall results for product lines or other groupings. In addition, the arm’s length results of all related party transactions entered into by a controlled taxpayer may be evaluated by employing sampling and other valid statistical techniques ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(E)Example 4.

(i) USP, a U.S. corporation, manufactures product Y in the United States and sells it to FSub, which acts as USP’s exclusive distributor of product Y in Country N. The resale price method described in § 1.482-3(c) is used to evaluate whether the transfer price charged by USP to FSub for the 1994 taxable year for product Y was arm’s length. For the period 1992 through 1994, FSub had a gross profit margin for each year of 13%. A, B, C and D are uncontrolled distributors of products that compete directly with product Y in country N. After making appropriate adjustments in accordance with §§ 1.482-1(d)(2) and 1.482-3(c), the gross profit margins for A, B, C, and D are as follows: 1992 1993 1994 Average A 13 3 8 8.00 B 11 13 2 8.67 7C 4 7 13 8.00 7D 7 9 6 7.33 (ii) Applying the provisions of § 1.482-1(e), the district director determines that the arm’s length range of ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(E) Example 3.

FP manufactures product X in Country M and sells it to USSub, which distributes X in the United States. USSub realizes losses with respect to the controlled transactions in each of five consecutive taxable years. In each of the five consecutive years a different uncontrolled comparable realized a loss with respect to comparable transactions equal to or greater than USSub’s loss. Pursuant to paragraph (f)(3)(iii)(C) of this section, the district director examines whether the uncontrolled comparables realized similar losses over a comparable period of time, and finds that each of the five comparables realized losses in only one of the five years, and their average result over the five-year period was a profit. Based on this data, the district director may conclude that the controlled taxpayer’s results are not within the arm’s length range over the five year period, since the economic conditions that resulted in the controlled taxpayer’s loss did not have a comparable effect over a comparable period of time ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(E) Example 2.

(i) FP, a Country X corporation, designs and manufactures machinery in Country X. FP’s costs are incurred in Country X currency. USSub is the exclusive distributor of FP’s machinery in the United States. The price of the machinery sold by FP to USSub is expressed in Country X currency. Thus, USSub bears all of the currency risk associated with fluctuations in the exchange rate between the time the contract is signed and the payment is made. The prices charged by FP to USSub for 1995 are under examination. In that year, the value of the dollar depreciated against the currency of Country X, and as a result, USSub’s gross margin was only 8%. (ii) UD is an uncontrolled distributor of similar machinery that performs distribution functions substantially the same as those performed by USSub, except that UD purchases and resells machinery in transactions where both the purchase and resale prices are denominated in U.S. dollars. Thus, UD had no currency ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(E) Example 1.

P sold product Z to S for $60 per unit in 1995. Applying the resale price method to data from uncontrolled comparables for the same year establishes an arm’s length range of prices for the controlled transaction from $52 to $59 per unit. Since the price charged in the controlled transaction falls outside the range, the district director would ordinarily make an allocation under section 482. However, in this case there are cyclical factors that affect the results of the uncontrolled comparables (and that of the controlled transaction) that cannot be adequately accounted for by specific adjustments to the data for 1995. Therefore, the district director considers results over multiple years to account for these factors. Under these circumstances, it is appropriate to average the results of the uncontrolled comparables over the years 1993, 1994, and 1995 to determine an arm’s length range. The averaged results establish an arm’s length range of $56 to $58 per unit. For consistency, the ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(E) Examples.

The following examples, in which S and P are controlled taxpayers, illustrate this paragraph (f)(2)(iii). Examples 1 and 4 also illustrate the principle of the arm’s length range of paragraph (e) of this section ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(D) Applications of methods using multiple year averages.

If a comparison of a controlled taxpayer’s average result over a multiple year period with the average results of uncontrolled comparables over the same period would reduce the effect of short-term variations that may be unrelated to transfer pricing, it may be appropriate to establish a range derived from the average results of uncontrolled comparables over a multiple year period to determine if an adjustment should be made. In such a case the district director may make an adjustment if the controlled taxpayer’s average result for the multiple year period is not within such range. Such a range must be determined in accordance with § 1.482-1(e) (Arm’s length range). An adjustment in such a case ordinarily will be equal to the difference, if any, between the controlled taxpayer’s result for the taxable year and the mid-point of the uncontrolled comparables’ results for that year. If the interquartile range is used to determine the range of average results for the multiple ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(C) Comparable effect over comparable period.

Data from multiple years may be considered to determine whether the same economic conditions that caused the controlled taxpayer’s results had a comparable effect over a comparable period of time on the uncontrolled comparables that establish the arm’s length range. For example, given that uncontrolled taxpayers enter into transactions with the ultimate expectation of earning a profit, persistent losses among controlled taxpayers may be an indication of non-arm’s length dealings. Thus, if a controlled taxpayer that realizes a loss with respect to a controlled transaction seeks to demonstrate that the loss is within the arm’s length range, the district director may take into account data from taxable years other than the taxable year of the transaction to determine whether the loss was attributable to arm’s length dealings. The rule of this paragraph (f)(2)(iii)(C) is illustrated by Example 3 of paragraph (f)(2)(iii)(E) of this section ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(B) Circumstances warranting consideration of multiple year data.

The extent to which it is appropriate to consider multiple year data depends on the method being applied and the issue being addressed. Circumstances that may warrant consideration of data from multiple years include the extent to which complete and accurate data are available for the taxable year under review, the effect of business cycles in the controlled taxpayer’s industry, or the effects of life cycles of the product or intangible property being examined. Data from one or more years before or after the taxable year under review must ordinarily be considered for purposes of applying the provisions of paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of this section (risk), paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section (market share strategy), § 1.482-4(f)(2) (periodic adjustments), § 1.482-5 (comparable profits method), § 1.482-9(f) (comparable profits method for services), and § 1.482-9(i) (contingent-payment contractual terms for services). On the other hand, multiple year data ordinarily will not be considered for purposes of applying the comparable uncontrolled price method of § 1.482-3(b) or the comparable uncontrolled services price method of § 1.482-9(c) (except to the extent that ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(A) In general.

The results of a controlled transaction ordinarily will be compared with the results of uncontrolled comparables occurring in the taxable year under review. It may be appropriate, however, to consider data relating to the uncontrolled comparables or the controlled taxpayer for one or more years before or after the year under review. If data relating to uncontrolled comparables from multiple years is used, data relating to the controlled taxpayer for the same years ordinarily must be considered. However, if such data is not available, reliable data from other years, as adjusted under paragraph (d)(2) (Standard of comparability) of this section may be used ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(ii)(A) In general.

The Commissioner will evaluate the results of a transaction as actually structured by the taxpayer unless its structure lacks economic substance. However, the Commissioner may consider the alternatives available to the taxpayer in determining whether the terms of the controlled transaction would be acceptable to an uncontrolled taxpayer faced with the same alternatives and operating under comparable circumstances. In such cases the Commissioner may adjust the consideration charged in the controlled transaction based on the cost or profit of an alternative as adjusted to account for material differences between the alternative and the controlled transaction, but will not restructure the transaction as if the alternative had been adopted by the taxpayer. See paragraph (d)(3) of this section (factors for determining comparability; contractual terms and risk); §§ 1.482-3(e), 1.482-4(d), and 1.482-9(h) (unspecified methods) ... Read more