Tag: Discounted Cash Flow (DCF)

The discounted cash flow (DCF) model is a method/tool of valuing an asset or business using the concept of the time value of money and risk. Projected future cash flows are estimated and then discounted to present value using the relevant cost of capital (WACC). The sum of all discounted future cash flows, both incoming and outgoing, is the net present value (NPV), which is taken as the value or price of the asset or business in question.

§ 1.482-8(b) Example 16.

Income method (applied using CPM) preferred to acquisition price method. The facts are the same as in Example 13, except that the acquisition occurred significantly in advance of formation of the CSA, and reliable adjustments cannot be made for this time difference. In addition, Company X has other valuable molecular patents and associated research capabilities, apart from Compound X, that are not reasonably anticipated to contribute to the development of Oncol and that cannot be reliably valued. The CSA divides divisional interests on a territorial basis. Under the terms of the CSA, USP will undertake all R&D (consisting of laboratory research and clinical testing) and manufacturing associated with Oncol, as well as the distribution activities for its territory (the United States). FS will distribute Oncol in its territory (the rest of the world). FS’s distribution activities are routine in nature, and the profitability from its activities may be reliably determined from third-party comparables. FS does not furnish any platform contributions. At the ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(4)(viii) Example 9.

The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that additional data on discount rates are available that were not available in Example 1. The Commissioner determines the arm’s length charge for the PCT Payment by discounting at an appropriate rate the differential income stream associated with the rights contributed by USP in the PCT (that is, the stream of income in column (11) of Example 1). Based on an analysis of a set of public companies whose resources, capabilities, and rights consist primarily of resources, capabilities, and rights similar to those contributed by USP in the PCT, the Commissioner determines that 15% to 17% is an appropriate range of discount rates to use to assess the value of the differential income stream associated with the rights contributed by USP in the PCT. The Commissioner determines that applying a discount rate of 17% to the differential income stream associated with the rights contributed by USP in the PCT yields a present value of $446 ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(4)(viii) Example 8.

(i) The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that the taxpayer determines that the appropriate discount rate for the cost sharing alternative is 20%. In addition, the taxpayer determines that the appropriate discount rate for the licensing alternative is 10%. Accordingly, the taxpayer determines that the appropriate present value of the PCT Payment is $146 million. (ii) Based on the best method analysis described in Example 2, the Commissioner determines that the taxpayer’s calculation of the present value of the PCT Payments is outside of the interquartile range (as shown in the sixth column of Example 2), and thus warrants an adjustment. Furthermore, in evaluating the taxpayer’s analysis, the Commissioner undertakes an analysis based on the difference in the financial projections between the cost sharing and licensing alternatives (as shown in column 11 of Example 1). This column shows the anticipated differential income stream of additional positive or negative income for FS over the duration of the CSA Activity that would result from ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(4)(viii) Example 7.

Application of income method with a terminal value calculation. (i) For simplicity of calculation in this Example 7, all financial flows are assumed to occur at the beginning of each period. USP’s research and development team, Q, has developed a technology, Z, for which it has several applications on the market now and several planned for release at future dates. In Year 1, USP, enters into a CSA with its wholly-owned subsidiary, FS, to develop future applications of Z. Under the CSA, USP will have the rights to further develop and exploit the future applications of Z in the United States, and FS will have the rights to further develop and exploit the future applications of Z in the rest of the world. Both Q and the rights to further develop and exploit future applications of Z are reasonably anticipated to contribute to the development of future applications of Z. Therefore, both Q and the rights to further develop and exploit the ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(4)(viii) Example 6.

Pre-tax PCT Payment derived from pre-tax information. (i) The facts are the same as in paragraphs (i) and (ii) of Example 4. In addition, under paragraph (g)(4) of this section, the arm’s length charge for a PCT Payment will be an amount such that a controlled participant’s present value, as of the date of the PCT of its cost sharing alternative of entering into a CSA equals the present value of its best realistic alternative. This requires that “L,” the present value of the post-tax income under the CSA, equals the present value of the post-tax income under the licensing alternative, or $196. (ii) Under the specific facts and assumptions of this Example 6 (see paragraph (g)(4)(i)(G) of this section), and using the same (post-tax) discount rates as in Example 4, the present value of pre-tax income under the licensing alternative (that is, the operating income) is $261, and the present value of pre-tax income under the cost sharing alternative (excluding PCT Payments) is $749. Accordingly, FS determines that its ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(4)(viii) Example 5.

Pre-tax PCT Payment derived from post-tax information. (i) The facts are the same as in paragraphs (i) and (ii) of Example 4. In addition, under this paragraph (g)(4), the arm’s length charge for a PCT Payment will be an amount such that a controlled participant’s present value, as of the date of the PCT of its cost sharing alternative equals the present value of its best realistic alternative. This requires that L, the present value of the post-tax income under the CSA, equals the present value of the post-tax income under the licensing alternative, or $196. (ii) FS determines that the post-tax present value of the cost sharing alternative (excluding PCT Payments) is $562. The post-tax present value of the licensing alternative is $196. Accordingly, payments with a post-tax present value of $366 are required. (iii) The Commissioner undertakes an audit of the PCT Payments made by FS to USP for Z in Years 1 through 3. In correspondence to the Commissioner, USP ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(4)(viii) Example 4.

Pre-tax PCT Payment derived from post-tax information. (i) For simplicity of calculation in this Example 4, it is assumed that all payments are made at the end of each year. Domestic controlled participant USP has developed a technology, Z, that it would like to exploit for three years in a CSA. USP enters into a CSA with its wholly-owned foreign subsidiary, FS, that provides for PCT Payments from FS to USP with respect to USP’s platform contribution to the CSA of Z in the form of three annual installment payments due from FS to USP on the last day of each of the first three years of the CSA. FS makes no platform contributions to the CSA. Prior to entering into the CSA, FS considers that it has the realistic alternative available to it of licensing Z from USP rather than entering into a CSA with USP to further develop Z for three years. (ii) FS undertakes financial projections for both the ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(4)(viii) Example 3.

(i) For simplicity of calculation in this Example 3, all financial flows are assumed to occur at the beginning of each period. USP, a U.S. software company, has developed version 1.0 of a new software application, employed to store and retrieve complex data sets in certain types of storage media. Version 1.0 is currently being marketed. In Year 1, USP enters into a CSA with its wholly-owned foreign subsidiary, FS, to develop future versions of the software application. Under the CSA, USP will have the exclusive rights to exploit the future versions in the U.S., and FS will have the exclusive rights to exploit them in the rest of the world. USP’s rights in version 1.0, and its development team, are reasonably anticipated to contribute to the development of future versions of the software application and, therefore, the rights in version 1.0 are platform contributions for which compensation is due from FS as part of a PCT. USP also transfers the current ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(4)(viii) Example 2.

Arm’s length range. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 1. The Commissioner accepts the financial projections undertaken by FS. Further, the Commissioner determines that the licensing discount rate and the CUT licensing rate are most reliably determined by reference to comparable uncontrolled discount rates and license rates, respectively. The observations that are in the interquartile range of the respective input parameters (see paragraph (g)(2)(ix) of this section) are as follows: Observations that are within interquartile range Comparable uncontrolled discount rate 1 11% 2 12 3 (Median) 13 4 15 5 17 Observations that are within interquartile range Comparable uncontrolled licensing rate 1 30% 2 32 3 (Median) 35 4 37 5 40 (ii) Following the principles of paragraph (g)(2)(ix) of this section, the Commissioner undertakes 25 different applications of the income method, using each combination of the discount rate and licensing rate parameters. In undertaking this analysis, the Commissioner assumes that the ratio of the median discount rate for the cost sharing alternative ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(4)(viii) Example 1.

(i) For simplicity of calculation in this Example 1, all financial flows are assumed to occur at the beginning of each period. USP, a software company, has developed version 1.0 of a new software application that it is currently marketing. In Year 1 USP enters into a CSA with its wholly-owned foreign subsidiary, FS, to develop future versions of the software application. Under the CSA, USP will have the rights to exploit the future versions in the United States, and FS will have the rights to exploit them in the rest of the world. The future rights in version 1.0, and USP’s development team, are reasonably anticipated to contribute to the development of future versions and therefore the rights in version 1.0 and the research and development team are platform contributions for which compensation is due from FS as part of a PCT. USP does not transfer the current exploitation rights in version 1.0 to FS. FS will not perform any research ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(4)(v) Application of income method using differential income stream.

In some cases, the present value of an arm’s length PCT Payment may be determined as the present value, discounted at the appropriate rate, of the PCT Payor’s reasonably anticipated stream of additional positive or negative income over the duration of the CSA Activity that would result (before PCT Payments) from undertaking the cost sharing alternative rather than the licensing alternative (differential income stream). See Example 9 of paragraph (g)(4)(viii) of this section ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(4)(ii) Evaluation of PCT Payor’s cost sharing alternative.

The present value of the PCT Payor’s cost sharing alternative is the present value of the stream of the reasonably anticipated residuals over the duration of the CSA Activity of divisional profits or losses, minus operating cost contributions, minus cost contributions, minus PCT Payments ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(4)(i)(F) Discount rates appropriate to cost sharing and licensing alternatives.

The present value of the cost sharing and licensing alternatives, respectively, should be determined using the appropriate discount rates in accordance with paragraphs (g)(2)(v) and (g)(4)(vi)(F) of this section. See, for example, § 1.482-7(g)(2)(v)(B)(1) (Discount rate variation between realistic alternatives). In circumstances where the market-correlated risks as between the cost sharing and licensing alternatives are not materially different, a reliable analysis may be possible by using the same discount rate with respect to both alternatives ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(4)(i)(E) Income method payment forms.

The income method may be applied to determine PCT Payments in any form of payment (for example, lump sum, royalty on sales, or royalty on divisional profit). For converting to another form of payment, see generally paragraph (h) (Form of payment rules) of this section ... Read more
TPG2022 Chapter VI Annex I example 29

TPG2022 Chapter VI Annex I example 29

104. Pervichnyi is the parent of an MNE group organised and doing business in country X. Prior to Year 1, Pervichnyi developed patents and trademarks related to Product F. It manufactured Product F in country X and supplied the product to distribution affiliates throughout the world. For purposes of this example assume the prices charged to distribution affiliates were consistently arm’s length. 105. At the beginning of Year 1, Pervichnyi organises a wholly owned subsidiary, Company S, in country Y. In order to save costs, Pervichnyi transfers all of its production of Product F to Company S. At the time of the organisation of Company S, Pervichnyi sells the patents and trademarks related to Product F to Company S for a lump sum. Under these circumstances, Pervichnyi and Company S seek to identify an arm’s length price for the transferred intangibles by utilising a discounted cash flow valuation technique. 106. According to this valuation analysis, Pervichnyi could have generated after ... Read more
TPG2022 Chapter VI Annex I example 28

TPG2022 Chapter VI Annex I example 28

101. Company A is the Parent company of an MNE group with operations in country S. Company B is a member of the MNE group with operations in country T, and Company C is also a member of the MNE group with operations in country U. For valid business reasons the MNE group decides to centralise all of its intangibles related to business conducted outside of country S in a single location. Accordingly, intangibles owned by Company B are sold to Company C for a lump sum, including patents, trademarks, know-how, and customer relationships. At the same time, Company C retains Company B to act as a contract manufacturer of products previously produced and sold by Company B on a full-risk basis. Company C has the personnel and resources required to manage the acquired lines of business, including the further development of intangibles necessary to the Company B business. 102. The MNE group is unable to identify comparable uncontrolled transactions ... Read more
TPG2022 Chapter VI Annex I example 27

TPG2022 Chapter VI Annex I example 27

97. Company A is the Parent of an MNE group with operations in country X. Company A owns patents, trademarks and know-how with regard to several products produced and sold by the MNE group. Company B is a wholly owned subsidiary of Company A. All of Company B’s operations are conducted in country Y. Company B also owns patents, trademarks and know-how related to Product M. 98. For sound business reasons related to the coordination of the group’s patent protection and anti-counterfeiting activities, the MNE group decides to centralise ownership of its patents in Company A. Accordingly, Company B sells the Product M patents to Company A for a lump-sum price. Company A assumes responsibility to perform all ongoing functions and it assumes all risks related to the Product M patents following the sale. Based on a detailed comparability and functional analysis, the MNE group concludes that it is not able to identify any comparable uncontrolled transactions that can be ... Read more
TPG2022 Chapter VI Annex I example 17

TPG2022 Chapter VI Annex I example 17

59. Company A is a fully integrated pharmaceutical company engaged in the discovery, development, production and sale of pharmaceutical preparations. Company A conducts its operations in country X. In conducting its research activities, Company A regularly retains independent Contract Research Organisations (CROs) to perform various R&D activities, including designing and conducting clinical trials with regard to products under development by Company A. However, such CROs do not engage in the blue sky research required to identify new pharmaceutical compounds. Where Company A does retain a CRO to engage in clinical research activities, research personnel at Company A actively participate in designing the CRO’s research studies, provide to the CRO results and information derived from earlier research, establish budgets and timelines for CRO projects, and conduct ongoing quality control with respect to the CRO’s activities. In such arrangements, CROs are paid a negotiated fee for services and do not have an ongoing interest in the profits derived from sales of products ... Read more
TPG2022 Chapter VI Annex I example 16

TPG2022 Chapter VI Annex I example 16

54. Shuyona is the parent company of an MNE group. Shuyona is organised in and operates exclusively in Country X. The Shuyona group is involved in the production and sale of consumer goods. In order to maintain and, if possible, improve its market position, ongoing research is carried out by the Shuyona group to improve existing products and develop new products. The Shuyona group maintains two R&D centres, one operated by Shuyona in country X, and the other operated by Company S, a subsidiary of Shuyona, operating in country Y. The relationships between the Shuyona R&D centre and the Company S R&D centre are as described in Example 14. 55. In Year 1, Shuyona sells all rights to patents and other technology related intangibles, including rights to use those intangibles in ongoing research, to a new subsidiary, Company T, organised in country Z. Company T establishes a manufacturing facility in country Z and begins to supply products to members of ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.178

Where the purpose of the valuation technique is to isolate the projected cash flows associated with an intangible, it may be necessary to evaluate and quantify the effect of projected future income taxes on the projected cash flows. Tax effects to be considered include: (i) taxes projected to be imposed on future cash flows, (ii) tax amortisation benefits projected to be available to the transferee, if any, and (iii) taxes projected to be imposed on the transferor as a result of the transfer, if any ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.177

In this regard, where specific intangibles contribute to continuing cash flows beyond the period for which reasonable financial projections exist, it will sometimes be the case that a terminal value for the intangible related cash flows is calculated. Where terminal values are used in valuation calculations, the assumptions underlying their calculation should be clearly set out and the underlying assumptions thoroughly examined, particularly the assumed growth rates ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.176

In some circumstances, particular intangibles may contribute to the generation of cash flow in years after the legal protections have expired or the products to which they specifically relate have ceased to be marketed. This can be the case in situations where one generation of intangibles forms the base for the development of future generations of intangibles and new products. It may well be that some portion of continuing cash flows from projected new products should properly be attributed to otherwise expired intangibles where such follow on effects exist. It should be recognised that, while some intangibles have an indeterminate useful life at the time of valuation, that fact does not imply that non-routine returns are attributable to such intangibles in perpetuity ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.175

The projected useful life of particular intangibles is a question to be determined on the basis of all of the relevant facts and circumstances. The useful life of a particular intangible can be affected by the nature and duration of the legal protections afforded the intangible. The useful life of intangibles also may be affected by the rate of technological change in the industry, and by other factors affecting competition in the relevant economic environment. See paragraphs 6.121 and 6.122 ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.174

Valuation techniques are often premised on the projection of cash flows derived from the exploitation of the intangible over the useful life of the intangible in question. In such circumstances, the determination of the actual useful life of the intangible will be one of the critical assumptions supporting the valuation model ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.173

Since certain risks can be taken into account either in arriving at financial projections or in calculating the discount rate, care should be taken to avoid double discounting for risk ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.172

It should be recognised in determining and evaluating discount rates that in some instances, particularly those associated with the valuation of intangibles still in development, intangibles may be among the most risky components of a taxpayer’s business. It should also be recognised that some businesses are inherently more risky than others and some cash flow streams are inherently more volatile than others. For example, the likelihood that a projected level of research and development expense will be incurred may be higher than the likelihood that a projected level of revenues will ultimately be generated. The discount rate or rates should reflect the level of risk in the overall business and the expected volatility of the various projected cash flows under the circumstances of each individual case ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.171

There is no single measure for a discount rate that is appropriate for transfer pricing purposes in all instances. Neither taxpayers nor tax administrations should assume that a discount rate that is based on a Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) approach or any other measure should always be used in transfer pricing analyses where determination of appropriate discount rates is important. Instead the specific conditions and risks associated with the facts of a given case and the particular cash flows in question should be evaluated in determining the appropriate discount rate ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.170

The discount rate or rates used in converting a stream of projected cash flows into a present value is a critical element of a valuation model. The discount rate takes into account the time value of money and the risk or uncertainty of the anticipated cash flows. As small variations in selected discount rates can generate large variations in the calculated value of intangibles using these techniques, it is essential for taxpayers and tax administrations to give close attention to the analysis performed and the assumptions made in selecting the discount rate or rates utilised in the valuation model ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.169

A key element of some cash flow projections that should be carefully examined is the projected growth rate. Often projections of future cash flows are based on current cash flows (or assumed initial cash flows after product introduction in the case of partially developed intangibles) expanded by reference to a percentage growth rate. Where that is the case, the basis for the assumed growth rate should be considered. In particular, it is unusual for revenues derived from a particular product to grow at a steady rate over a long period of time. Caution should therefore be exercised in too readily accepting simple models containing linear growth rates not justified on the basis of either experience with similar products and markets or a reasonable evaluation of likely future market conditions. It would generally be expected that a reliable application of a valuation technique based on projected future cash flows would examine the likely pattern of revenue and expense growth based on ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.168

Where, for the foregoing reasons, or any other reason, there is a basis to believe that the projections behind the valuation are unreliable or speculative, attention should be given to the guidance in Section D.3 and D.4 ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.167

When deciding whether to include development costs in the cash flow projections it is important to consider the nature of the transferred intangible. Some intangibles may have indefinite useful lives and may be continually developed. In these situations it is appropriate to include future development costs in the cash flow forecasts. Others, for example a specific patent, may already be fully developed and, in addition not provide a platform for the development of other intangibles. In these situations no development costs should be included in the cash flow forecasts for the transferred intangible ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.166

A further consideration in evaluating the reliability of projections involves whether the intangibles and the products or services to which they relate have an established track record of financial performance. Caution should always be used in assuming that past performance is a reliable guide to the future, as many factors are subject to change. However, past operating results can provide some useful guidance as to likely future performance of products or services that rely on intangibles. Projections with respect to products or services that have not been introduced to the market or that are still in development are inherently less reliable than those with some track record ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.165

The length of time covered by the projections should also be considered in evaluating the reliability of the projections. The further into the future the intangible in question can be expected to produce positive cash flows, the less reliable projections of income and expense are likely to be ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.164

In evaluating financial projections, the source and purpose of the projections can be particularly important. In some cases, taxpayers will regularly prepare financial projections for business planning purposes. It can be that such analyses are used by management of the business in making business and investment decisions. It is usually the case that projections prepared for non-tax business planning purposes are more reliable than projections prepared exclusively for tax purposes, or exclusively for purposes of a transfer pricing analysis ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.163

The reliability of a valuation of a transferred intangible using discounted cash flow valuation techniques is dependent on the accuracy of the projections of future cash flows or income on which the valuation is based. However, because the accuracy of financial projections is contingent on developments in the marketplace that are both unknown and unknowable at the time the valuation is undertaken, and to this extent such projections are speculative, it is essential for taxpayers and tax administrations to examine carefully the assumptions underlying the projections of both future revenue and future expense ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.162

The following sections identify some of the specific concerns that should be taken into account in evaluating certain important assumptions underlying calculations in a valuation model based on discounted cash flows. These concerns are important in evaluating the reliability of the particular application of a valuation technique. Notwithstanding the various concerns expressed above and outlined in detail in the following paragraphs, depending on the circumstances, application of such a valuation technique, either as part of one of the five OECD transfer pricing methods or as a useful tool, may prove to be more reliable than application of any other transfer pricing method, particularly where reliable comparable uncontrolled transactions do not exist ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.161

It may be relevant in assessing the reliability of a valuation model to consider the purposes for which the valuation was undertaken and to examine the assumptions and valuation parameters in different valuations undertaken by the taxpayer for non-tax purposes. It would be reasonable for a tax administration to request an explanation for any inconsistencies in the assumptions made in a valuation of an intangible undertaken for transfer pricing purposes and valuations undertaken for other purposes. For example, such requests would be appropriate if high discount rates are used in a transfer pricing analysis when the company routinely uses lower discount rates in evaluating possible mergers and acquisitions. Such requests would also be appropriate if it is asserted that particular intangibles have short useful lives but the projections used in other business planning contexts demonstrate that related intangibles produce cash flows in years beyond the “useful life” that has been claimed for transfer pricing purposes. Valuations used by an MNE ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.160

Because of the importance of the underlying assumptions and valuation parameters, taxpayers and tax administrations making use of valuation techniques in determining arm’s length prices for transferred intangibles should explicitly set out each of the relevant assumptions made in creating the valuation model, should describe the basis for selecting valuation parameters, and should be prepared to defend the reasonableness of such assumptions and valuation parameters. Moreover, it is a good practice for taxpayers relying on valuation techniques to present as part of their transfer pricing documentation some sensitivity analysis reflecting the consequential change in estimated intangible value produced by the model when alternative assumptions and parameters are adopted ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.159

The reliability of the intangible value produced using a valuation model is particularly sensitive to the reliability of the underlying assumptions and estimates on which it is based and on the due diligence and judgment exercised in confirming assumptions and in estimating valuation parameters ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.158

When applying valuation techniques, including valuation techniques based on projected cash flows, it is important to recognise that the estimates of value based on such techniques can be volatile. Small changes in one or another of the assumptions underlying the valuation model or in one or more of the valuation parameters can lead to large differences in the intangible value the model produces. A small percentage change in the discount rate, a small percentage change in the growth rates assumed in producing financial projections, or a small change in the assumptions regarding the useful life of the intangible can each have a profound effect on the ultimate valuation. Moreover, this volatility is often compounded when changes are made simultaneously to two or more valuation assumptions or parameters ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.157

Valuation techniques that estimate the discounted value of projected future cash flows derived from the exploitation of the transferred intangible or intangibles can be particularly useful when properly applied. There are many variations of these valuation techniques. In general terms, such techniques measure the value of an intangible by the estimated value of future cash flows it may generate over its expected remaining lifetime. The value can be calculated by discounting the expected future cash flows to present value. Under this approach valuation requires, among other things, defining realistic and reliable financial projections, growth rates, discount rates, the useful life of intangibles, and the tax effects of the transaction. Moreover it entails consideration of terminal values when appropriate. Depending on the facts and circumstances of the individual case, the calculation of the discounted value of projected cash flows derived from the exploitation of the intangible should be evaluated from the perspectives of both parties to the transaction in arriving at ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.156

It is not the intention of these Guidelines to set out a comprehensive summary of the valuation techniques utilised by valuation professionals. Similarly, it is not the intention of these Guidelines to endorse or reject one or more sets of valuation standards utilised by valuation or accounting professionals or to describe in detail or specifically endorse one or more specific valuation techniques or methods as being especially suitable for use in a transfer pricing analysis. However, where valuation techniques are applied in a manner that gives due regard to these Guidelines, to the specific facts of the case, to sound valuation principles and practices, and with appropriate consideration of the validity of the assumptions underlying the valuation and the consistency of those assumptions with the arm’s length principle, such techniques can be useful tools in a transfer pricing analysis where reliable comparable uncontrolled transactions are not available. See, however, paragraphs 6.142 and 6.143 for a discussion of the reliability and ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.155

It is essential to consider the assumptions and other motivations that underlie particular applications of valuation techniques. For sound accounting purposes, some valuation assumptions may sometimes reflect conservative assumptions and estimates of the value of assets reflected in a company’s balance sheet. This inherent conservatism can lead to definitions that are too narrow for transfer pricing purposes and valuation approaches that are not necessarily consistent with the arm’s length principle. Caution should therefore be exercised in accepting valuations performed for accounting purposes as necessarily reflecting arm’s length prices or values for transfer pricing purposes without a thorough examination of the underlying assumptions. In particular, valuations of intangibles contained in purchase price allocations performed for accounting purposes are not determinative for transfer pricing purposes and should be utilised in a transfer pricing analysis with caution and careful consideration of the underlying assumptions ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.154

Where valuation techniques are utilised in a transfer pricing analysis involving the transfer of intangibles or rights in intangibles, it is necessary to apply such techniques in a manner that is consistent with the arm’s length principle and the principles of these Guidelines. In particular, due regard should be given to the principles contained in Chapters I – III. Principles related to realistically available options, economically relevant characteristics including assumption of risk (see Section D. 1 of Chapter I) and aggregation of transactions (see paragraphs 3.9 to 3.12) apply fully to situations where valuation techniques are utilised in a transfer pricing analysis. Furthermore, the rules of these Guidelines on selection of transfer pricing methods apply in determining when such techniques should be used (see paragraphs 2.1 to 2.12). The principles of Sections A, B, C, and D. 1 of this chapter also apply where use of valuation techniques is considered ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.153

In situations where reliable comparable uncontrolled transactions for a transfer of one or more intangibles cannot be identified, it may also be possible to use valuation techniques to estimate the arm’s length price for intangibles transferred between associated enterprises. In particular, the application of income based valuation techniques, especially valuation techniques premised on the calculation of the discounted value of projected future income streams or cash flows derived from the exploitation of the intangible being valued, may be particularly useful when properly applied. Depending on the facts and circumstances, valuation techniques may be used by taxpayers and tax administrations as a part of one of the five OECD transfer pricing methods described in Chapter II, or as a tool that can be usefully applied in identifying an arm’s length price ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter II paragraph 2.175

For instance, where an asset-based profit splitting factor is used, it may be based on data extracted from the balance sheets of the parties to the transaction. It will often be the case that not all the assets of the taxpayers relate to the transaction at hand and that accordingly some analytical work is needed for the taxpayer to draw up a “transactional” balance sheet that will be used for the application of the transactional profit split method. In addition, certain assets, such as self-developed intangibles, may not be reflected on the balance sheet at all, and accordingly must be separately evaluated. In this regard, valuation techniques, such as those based on the discounted value of projected future income streams or cash flows derived from the exploitation of the intangible may be useful. See Section D.2.6.3 of Chapter VI of these guidelines. See also paragraph 2.104 for a discussion of valuation of assets in the context of the transactional net ... Read more