Tag: Genuine insurance

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.215

In accurately delineating fronting arrangements, the same principles stated for captive insurance apply. It is important to note, however, that fronting arrangements represent particularly complex controlled transactions to price as they involve the participation of a third party that is indifferent to the levels of the price of the insurance and reinsurance transactions. The key issues which are likely to arise in fronting cases are whether the transactions involved amount to genuine insurance or reinsurance and, if there is genuine insurance, whether the premiums payable (ultimately to the reinsurance captive) are on arm’s length terms ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.208

In situations where the captive insurance lacks the scale to achieve significant risk diversification or lacks sufficient reserves to meet additional risks represented by the relatively less diversified portfolio of the MNE group, the accurate delineation of the actual transaction may indicate that the captive insurance is operating a business other than an insurance one (see guidance in Chapter VII) ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.200

In order to consider the transfer pricing implications of a transaction with a captive insurance, it is first necessary to identify the commercial or financial relations between the associated enterprises and the conditions and economically relevant circumstances attaching to those relations in order that the actual transaction is accurately delineated. The initial question will therefore be whether the transaction under consideration is one of insurance, as defined above. This analysis requires consideration of whether the risk has been assumed by the insurer and whether risk diversification has been achieved ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.199

A frequent concern when considering the transfer pricing of captive insurance transactions is whether the transaction concerned is genuinely one of insurance, i.e. whether a risk exists and, if so, whether it is allocated to the captive insurance in light of the facts and circumstances. The following are indicators, all or substantially all of which would be found if the captive insurance was found to undertake a genuine insurance business: there is diversification and pooling of risk in the captive insurance; the economic capital position of the entities within the MNE group has improved as a result of diversification and there is therefore a real economic impact for the MNE group as a whole; both the captive insurance and any reinsurer are regulated entities with broadly similar regulatory regimes and regulators that require evidence of risk assumption and appropriate capital levels; the insured risk would otherwise be insurable outside the MNE group; the captive insurance has the requisite skills, including ... Read more

TPG2020 Chapter X paragraph 10.208

In situations where the captive insurance lacks the scale to achieve significant risk diversification or lacks sufficient reserves to meet additional risks represented by the relatively less diversified portfolio of the MNE group, the accurate delineation of the actual transaction may indicate that the captive insurance is operating a business other than an insurance one (see guidance in Chapter VII) ... Read more

TPG2020 Chapter X paragraph 10.200

In order to consider the transfer pricing implications of a transaction with a captive insurance, it is first necessary to identify the commercial or financial relations between the associated enterprises and the conditions and economically relevant circumstances attaching to those relations in order that the actual transaction is accurately delineated. The initial question will therefore be whether the transaction under consideration is one of insurance, as defined above. This analysis requires consideration of whether the risk has been assumed by the insurer and whether risk diversification has been achieved ... Read more

TPG2020 Chapter X paragraph 10.199

A frequent concern when considering the transfer pricing of captive insurance transactions is whether the transaction concerned is genuinely one of insurance, i.e. whether a risk exists and, if so, whether it is allocated to the captive insurance in light of the facts and circumstances. The following are indicators, all or substantially all of which would be found if the captive insurance was found to undertake a genuine insurance business: there is diversification and pooling of risk in the captive insurance; the economic capital position of the entities within the MNE group has improved as a result of diversification and there is therefore a real economic impact for the MNE group as a whole; both the captive insurance and any reinsurer are regulated entities with broadly similar regulatory regimes and regulators that require evidence of risk assumption and appropriate capital levels; the insured risk would otherwise be insurable outside the MNE group; the captive insurance has the requisite skills, including ... Read more