Tag: Governmental regulation

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.15

As with any controlled transaction, the accurate delineation of financial transactions requires an analysis of the factors affecting the performance of businesses in the industry sector in which the MNE group operates. Because differences exist among industry sectors, factors such as the particular point of an economic, business or product cycle, the effect of government regulations, or the availability of financial resources in a given industry are relevant features that have to be considered to accurately delineate the controlled transaction. This examination will take account of the fact that MNE groups operating in different sectors may require, for example, different amounts and types of financing due to different capital intensity levels between industries, or may require different levels of short-term cash balances due to different commercial needs between industries. Where the relevant MNEs are regulated, such as financial services entities subject to regulations consistent with recognised industry standards (e.g. Basel requirements), due regard should be had to the constraints those ... Read more
Denmark vs EAC Invest A/S, October 2021, High Court, Case No SKM2021.705.OLR

Denmark vs EAC Invest A/S, October 2021, High Court, Case No SKM2021.705.OLR

In 2019, the Danish parent company of the group, EAC Invest A/S, had been granted a ruling by the tax tribunal that, in the period 2008-2011, due to, inter alia, quite exceptional circumstances involving currency restrictions in Venezuela, the parent company should not be taxed on interest on a claim for unpaid royalties relating to trademarks covered by licensing agreements between the parent company and its then Venezuelan subsidiary, Plumrose Latinoamericana C.A. The Tax tribunal had also found that neither a payment of extraordinary dividends by the Venezuelan subsidiary to the Danish parent company in 2012 nor a restructuring of the group in 2013 could trigger a deferred taxation of royalties. The tax authorities appealed against the decisions to the High Court. Judgement of the High Court The High Court upheld the decisions of the tax tribunal with amended grounds and dismissed the claims of the tax authorities. Excerpts: Interest on unpaid royalty claim “The High Court agrees that, as ... Read more
Brazil vs Natura Cosmeticos S/A, August 2021, CARF, Case No. 16327.000738/2004-66

Brazil vs Natura Cosmeticos S/A, August 2021, CARF, Case No. 16327.000738/2004-66

Natura Cosmeticos S/A had been issued a tax assessment for FY 1999 to 2001. In the assessment interest income from loans granted to foreign group entities had been added to the taxable income of the company. NATURA COSMETICOS S/A stated that the transfer pricing rule provided for in paragraph 1 of article 22 of Law 9,430/96 did not apply. The rule determines that “in the case of a loan with a related person, the lending legal entity, domiciled in Brazil, must recognize, as financial income corresponding to the operation, at least the amount calculated in accordance with the provisions of this article”. Article 22 provides that interest paid to a related person, when arising from a contract not registered with the Central Bank, will only be deductible for purposes of determining taxable income “up to the amount that does not exceed the amount calculated based on the Libor rate”. The remittance to related legal entities abroad was made by means ... Read more
France vs Bluestar Silicones France, Feb 2021, Supreme Administrative Court (CAA), Case No 16VE00352

France vs Bluestar Silicones France, Feb 2021, Supreme Administrative Court (CAA), Case No 16VE00352

Bluestar Silicones France (BSF), now Elkem Silicones France SAS (ESF), produces silicones and various products that it sells to other companies belonging to the Bluestar Silicones International group. The company was audited for the financial years 2007 – 2008 and an assessment was issued. According to the tax authorities, the selling prices of the silicone products had been below the arm’s length price and the company had refrained from invoicing of management exepences and cost of secondment of employees . In the course of the proceedings agreement had been reached on the pricing of products. Hence, in dispute before the court was the issue of lacking invoicing of management exepences and cost of secondment of employees for the benefit of the Chinese and Brazilian subsidiaries of the Group. According to the company there had been no hidden transfer of profits; its method of constructing the group’s prices has not changed and compliance with the arm’s length principle has been demonstrated ... Read more
Romania vs "GAS distributor" SC A, December 2020, Court of Appeal, Case No 238/12.03.2020

Romania vs “GAS distributor” SC A, December 2020, Court of Appeal, Case No 238/12.03.2020

The disputed issue concerns the purchase prices of natural gas by SC A from an affiliated company SC B. By orders of the National Energy Regulatory Authority (NERA), the prices of supply of natural gas to domestic and non-domestic consumers were regulated and fixed, but not the price at which SC A purchased it from the SC B. The tax authority issued an assessment where the price of the controlled gas transaction was determined by reference to profit level indicators of comparable businesses. SC A brought the decision to the Romanian courts. Judgement of the Court of Appeal The appeal of SC A was dismissed and the assessment of the tax authorities upheld. Excerpt “In the present case, in order to adjust the expenses for the cost of the goods purchased from SC “B.” SRL, based on the level of the central market trend, the tax body used the information provided by the ORBIS and FISCNET applications. Following the comparative ... Read more

TPG2020 Chapter X paragraph 10.15

As with any controlled transaction, the accurate delineation of financial transactions requires an analysis of the factors affecting the performance of businesses in the industry sector in which the MNE group operates. Because differences exist among industry sectors, factors such as the particular point of an economic, business or product cycle, the effect of government regulations, or the availability of financial resources in a given industry are relevant features that have to be considered to accurately delineate the controlled transaction. This examination will take account of the fact that MNE groups operating in different sectors may require, for example, different amounts and types of financing due to different capital intensity levels between industries, or may require different levels of short-term cash balances due to different commercial needs between industries. Where the relevant MNEs are regulated, such as financial services entities subject to regulations consistent with recognised industry standards (e.g. Basel requirements), due regard should be had to the constraints those ... Read more
Czech Republic vs. Eli Lilly ČR, s.r.o., December 2019, District Court of Praque, No. 6 Afs 90/2016 - 62

Czech Republic vs. Eli Lilly ČR, s.r.o., December 2019, District Court of Praque, No. 6 Afs 90/2016 – 62

Eli Lilly ČR imports pharmaceutical products purchased from Eli Lilly Export S.A. (Swiss sales and marketing hub) into the Czech Republic and Slovakia and distributes them to local distributors. The arrangement between the local company and Eli Lilly Export S.A. is based on a Service Contract in which Eli Lilly ČR is named as the service provider to Eli Lilly Export S.A. (the principal). Eli Lilly ČR was selling the products at a lower price than the price it purchased them for from Eli Lilly Export S.A. According to the company this was due to local price controls of pharmaceuticals. Eli Lilly ČR was also paid for providing marketing services by the Swiss HQ, which ensured that Eli Lilly ČR was profitable, despite selling the products at a loss. Eli Lilly ČR reported the marketing services as a provision of services with the place of supply outside of the Czech Republic; therefore, the income from such supply was exempt from ... Read more
Denmark vs Water Utility Companies, November 2018, Danish Supreme Court, Case No SKM2018.627.HR and SKM2018.635.HR

Denmark vs Water Utility Companies, November 2018, Danish Supreme Court, Case No SKM2018.627.HR and SKM2018.635.HR

These two triel cases concerned the calculation of the basis for tax depreciation (value of assets) in a number of Danish Water utility companies which had been established in the years 2006 – 2010 in connection with a public separation of water supply and wastewater utility activities. The valuation of the assets would form the basis for the water utility companies’ tax depreciation. The transfer was controlled and subject to Danish arm’s length provisions. The Supreme Court found that the calculation method (DCF) used by the Danish Tax Agency did not provide a suitable basis for calculating the tax value of the transferred assets. The Court stated that for water supply and wastewater treatment it is true that the companies are legaly obligated to provide these facilities and that the governmental regulation of the activity – the “rest in itself” principle – means that no income can be earned on the activities. However, the decisive factor is the value of these assets for the ... Read more
Japan vs Honda Motor Company Limited, May 2015, Tokyo High Court judgment, Case No 13 May 2015 Heisei 26 gyou-ko No 347

Japan vs Honda Motor Company Limited, May 2015, Tokyo High Court judgment, Case No 13 May 2015 Heisei 26 gyou-ko No 347

In the Tokyo High Court judgment, dated 13 May 2015, Honda Motor Company Limited, a major Japanese automobile manufacturer, obtained a cancellation of a tax assessment of ¥25.4 billion. The court held that the tax authorities had erred in the selection of companies comparable to the tested party (Honda’s foreign subsidiary in Brazil). The tested party was doing business in the Free Economic Zone of Manaus in Brazil – whereas the selected comparables was located outside the zone. The existence of Manaus Tax benefit was considered a market condition affecting the degree of profitability. Hence profits of the Honda subsidiary in Manaus could not be determined based on similar independent Brazilian companies outside the zone and therefore not comparable. Click here for English Translation JAP case ... Read more
Japan vs "Banana Corp", April 2013, Tokyo High Court, Case no 229

Japan vs “Banana Corp”, April 2013, Tokyo High Court, Case no 229

A Japanese distributor “Banana Corp” imported Ecuadorian bananas from a group company for wholesale in Japan. The Japanese tax administration ruled that the amount of consideration paid by Japanese distributor had exceeded the arm’s length price and issued an assessment of additional tax and penalties for FY 1999 – 2004. At first Banana Corp brought the case before the regional court who decision in favour of the tax administration. Banana Corp appealed this decision to Tokyo High Court. Tokyo High Court dismissed the appeal and upheld the decision of the regional court. Click here for English Translation Click here for other translation Ban-Co-2013-084405_hanrei ... Read more
Japan vs "Banana Corp", April 2009, Tokyo District Court

Japan vs “Banana Corp”, April 2009, Tokyo District Court

The “Banana Group” is based in Ecuador and is engaged in the business of exporting Ecuadorian bananas. The Japanese distributor was part of the Banana Group. An Ecuadorian group company purchases bananas produced on plantations in Ecuador, exports and sells them to another intermediate group company, who in turn sells them to the Japanese distributor for wholesale in Japan. At issue was the arms length price of the bananas imported by the Japanese distributor. The tax administration held that the price paid for the bananas had been to high and issued an assessment for FY 1999-2004. The Japanese company disagreed and brought the case to court. Decision of the Court The Tokyo District court decided in favour of the tax administration and upheld the tax assessment. Click here for English translation Click here for other translation EB 082672_hanrei ... Read more