Tag: Interest rate

France vs Electricité de France, November 2022, Conseil d'État, Case No 462383 (ECLI:FR:CECHR:2022:462383.20221116)

France vs Electricité de France, November 2022, Conseil d’État, Case No 462383 (ECLI:FR:CECHR:2022:462383.20221116)

In 2009 the English company EDF Energy UK Ltd (EDFE), a wholly-owned subsidiary of SAS Electricité de France International (SAS EDFI), issued 66,285 bonds convertible into shares (OCAs) for a unit nominal value of EUR 50,000. SAS EDFI subscribed to all of these OCAs for their nominal value, i.e. a total subscription price of EUR 3,314,250,000. The OCAs had a maturity of five years, i.e. until October 16, 2014, and could be converted into new EDFE shares at the instigation of the subscriber at any time after a three-year lock-up period, i.e. from October 16, 2012. Each bond entitled the holder to receive 36,576 EDFE shares after conversion. The annual coupon for the OCAs was set at 1.085%. In this respect, SAS EDFI determined, on the basis of a panel of bond issues of independent comparables, the arm’s length rate that should be applied to conventional bonds, i.e. 4.41% (mid-swap rate and premium of 1.70%), 490 million according to the ... Read more
Hungary vs "Gas-Trader KtF", November 2022, Supreme Administrative Court, Case no Kfv.I.35.343/2022/8

Hungary vs “Gas-Trader KtF”, November 2022, Supreme Administrative Court, Case no Kfv.I.35.343/2022/8

“Gas-Trader KtF” – a subsidiary in the E.ON group – had entered into loan agreements with other group companies and the related parties had determined the interest rate by application of the CUP method using the Thomson Reuters LoanConnector database. Comparable transactions was extracted from the database by searching for credit rating, type of debtor party, date of loan, maturity, transactions with completed status, and spread/provision fee. An audit was conducted by the tax authorities for FY 2012-2013 and the interest rate determined by the group was found to be incompliant with the arm’s length principle. The tax authorities applied the same method as Gas-Trader but added further search criteria in the selection of comparable transactions – credit purpose and insurance coverage. This resulted in a different range and an assessment of additional taxable income was issued. An appeal was filed by Gas-Trader KtF with the National Tax and Customs Board of Appeal where a judgement in favor of the ... Read more
Sweden vs TELE2 AB, November 2022, Court of Appeal, Case No 1298-21

Sweden vs TELE2 AB, November 2022, Court of Appeal, Case No 1298-21

The Swedish group TELE2, one of Europe’s largest telecommunications operators, had invested in an entity in Kazakhstan, MTS, that was owned via a joint venture together with an external party. Tele2 owned 51% of the Joint venture and MTS was financed by Tele2’s financing entity, Tele2 Treasury AB, which, during 2011-2015, had issued multiple loans to MTS. In September 2015, the currency on the existing internal loans to MTS was changed from dollars to KZT. At the same time a ‘Form of Selection Note’ was signed according to which Tele2 Treasury AB could recall the currency denomination within six months. A new loan agreement denominated in KZT, replacing the existing agreements, was then signed between Tele2 Treasury AB and MTS. In the new agreement the interest rate was also changed from LIBOR + 4.6% to a fixed rate of 11.5%. As a result of these contractual changes to the loan agreements with MTS, Tele2 Treasury AB in its tax filing ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(4) Example 5.

Assume that A and B are commonly controlled taxpayers and that the applicable Federal rate is 10 percent, compounded semiannually. On June 30, 1986, A sells property to B and receives in exchange B’s purchase-money note in the amount of $2,000,000. The stated interest rate on the note is 9%, compounded semiannually, and the stated redemption price at maturity on the note is $2,000,000. Assume that the other applicable Code section to this transaction is section 1274. As provided in section 1274A(a) and (b), the discount rate for purposes of section 1274 will be nine percent, compounded semiannually, because the stated principal amount of B’s note does not exceed $2,800,000. Section 1274 does not apply to this transaction because there is adequate stated interest on the debt instrument using a discount rate equal to 9%, compounded semiannually, and the stated redemption price at maturity does not exceed the stated principal amount. Under paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this section, the district director may apply ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(4) Example 4.

X and Y are commonly controlled taxpayers. At a time when the applicable Federal rate is 12 percent, compounded semiannually, X sells property to Y in exchange for a note with a stated rate of interest of 18 percent, compounded semiannually. Assume that the other applicable Code section to the transaction is section 483. Section 483 does not apply to this transaction because, under section 483(d), there is no total unstated interest under the contract using the test rate of interest equal to 100 percent of the applicable Federal rate. Under paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this section, section 482 and paragraph (a) of this section may be applied by the district director to determine whether the rate of interest under the note is excessive, that is, to determine whether the 18 percent stated interest rate under the note exceeds an arm’s length rate of interest ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(4) Example 3.

The facts are the same as in Example 2 except that the amount lent by Z to B is $9,000, and that amount is the aggregate outstanding amount of loans between Z and B. Under the $10,000 de minimis exception of section 7872(c)(3), no adjustment for interest will be made to this $9,000 loan under section 7872. Under paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this section, the district director may apply section 482 and paragraph (a) of this section to this $9,000 loan to determine whether the rate of interest charged is less than an arm’s length rate of interest, and if so, to make appropriate allocations to reflect an arm’s length rate of interest ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(4) Example 2.

B, an individual, is an employee of Z corporation, and is also the controlling shareholder of Z. Z makes a term loan of $15,000 to B at a rate of interest that is less than the applicable Federal rate. In this instance the other operative Code section is section 7872. Under section 7872(b), the difference between the amount loaned and the present value of all payments due under the loan using a discount rate equal to 100 percent of the applicable Federal rate is treated as an amount of cash transferred from the corporation to B and the loan is treated as having original issue discount equal to such amount. Under paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this section, section 482 and paragraph (a) of this section may also be applied by the district director to determine if the rate of interest charged on this $15,000 loan (100 percent of the AFR, compounded semiannually, as adjusted by section 7872) is an arm’s length rate of interest. Because ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(4) Example 1.

An individual, A, transfers $20,000 to a corporation controlled by A in exchange for the corporation’s note which bears adequate stated interest. The district director recharacterizes the transaction as a contribution to the capital of the corporation in exchange for preferred stock. Under paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section, section 1.482-2(a) does not apply to the transaction because there is no bona fide indebtedness ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(4) Examples.

The principles of paragraph (a)(3) of this section may be illustrated by the following examples: ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(3) Coordination with interest adjustments required under certain other Code sections.

If the stated rate of interest on the stated principal amount of a loan or advance between controlled entities is subject to adjustment under section 482 and is also subject to adjustment under any other section of the Internal Revenue Code (for example, section 467, 483, 1274 or 7872), section 482 and paragraph (a) of this section may be applied to such loan or advance in addition to such other Internal Revenue Code section. After the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1964, Pub. L. 98-369, and the enactment of Pub. L. 99-121, such other Internal Revenue Code sections include sections 467, 483, 1274 and 7872. The order in which the different provisions shall be applied is as follows – (i) First, the substance of the transaction shall be determined; for this purpose, all the relevant facts and circumstances shall be considered and any law or rule of law (assignment of income, step transaction, etc.) may apply. Only the rate of interest ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(2)(iii)(E) Foreign currency loans.

The safe haven interest rates prescribed in paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(B) of this section do not apply to any loan or advance the principal or interest of which is expressed in a currency other than U.S. dollars ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(2)(iii)(D) Lender in business of making loans.

If the lender in a loan or advance transaction to which paragraph (a)(2) of this section applies is regularly engaged in the trade or business of making loans or advances to unrelated parties, the safe haven rates prescribed in paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(B) of this section shall not apply, and the arm’s length interest rate to be used shall be determined under the standards described in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section, including reference to the interest rates charged in such trade or business by the lender on loans or advances of a similar type made to unrelated parties at and about the time the loan or advance to which paragraph (a)(2) of this section applies was made ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(2)(iii)(C) Applicable Federal rate.

For purposes of paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(B) of this section, the term applicable Federal rate means, in the case of a loan or advance to which this section applies and having a term of – (1) Not over 3 years, the Federal short-term rate; (2) Over 3 years but not over 9 years, the Federal mid-term rate; or (3) Over 9 years, the Federal long-term rate, as determined under section 1274(d) in effect on the date such loan or advance is made. In the case of any sale or exchange between controlled entities, the lower limit shall be the lowest of the applicable Federal rates in effect for any month in the 3-calendar- month period ending with the first calendar month in which there is a binding written contract in effect for such sale or exchange (lowest 3-month rate, as defined in section 1274(d)(2)). In the case of a demand loan or advance to which this section applies, the applicable Federal rate means the Federal short-term rate ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(2)(iii)(B) Safe haven interest rate based on applicable Federal rate.

Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (a)(2), in the case of a loan or advance between members of a group of controlled entities, an arm’s length rate of interest referred to in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section shall be for purposes of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code – (1) The rate of interest actually charged if that rate is – (i) Not less than 100 percent of the applicable Federal rate (lower limit); and (ii) Not greater than 130 percent of the applicable Federal rate (upper limit); or (2) If either no interest is charged or if the rate of interest charged is less than the lower limit, then an arm’s length rate of interest shall be equal to the lower limit, compounded semiannually; or (3) If the rate of interest charged is greater than the upper limit, then an arm’s length rate of interest shall be equal to the upper limit, compounded semiannually, unless the taxpayer establishes a more appropriate compound rate of interest ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(2)(iii)(A)(2) Grandfather rule for existing loans.

The safe haven rates prescribed in paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(B) of this section shall not apply, and the safe haven rates prescribed in § 1.482-2(a)(2)(iii) (26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 1985), shall apply to – (i) Term loans or advances made before May 9, 1986; and (ii) Term loans or advances made before August 7, 1986, pursuant to a binding written contract entered into before May 9, 1986 ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(2)(iii)(A)(1) General rule.

Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(B) applies with respect to the rate of interest charged and to the amount of interest paid or accrued in any taxable year – (i) Under a term loan or advance between members of a group of controlled entities where (except as provided in paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(A)(2)(ii) of this section) the loan or advance is entered into after May 8, 1986; and (ii) After May 8, 1986 under a demand loan or advance between such controlled entities ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(2)(ii) Funds obtained at situs of borrower.

Notwithstanding the other provisions of paragraph (a)(2) of this section, if the loan or advance represents the proceeds of a loan obtained by the lender at the situs of the borrower, the arm’s length rate for any taxable year shall be equal to the rate actually paid by the lender increased by an amount which reflects the costs or deductions incurred by the lender in borrowing such amounts and making such loans, unless the taxpayer establishes a more appropriate rate under the standards set forth in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(2)(i) In general.

For purposes of section 482 and paragraph (a) of this section, an arm’s length rate of interest shall be a rate of interest which was charged, or would have been charged, at the time the indebtedness arose, in independent transactions with or between unrelated parties under similar circumstances. All relevant factors shall be considered, including the principal amount and duration of the loan, the security involved, the credit standing of the borrower, and the interest rate prevailing at the situs of the lender or creditor for comparable loans between unrelated parties ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(1)(ii)(B) Alleged indebtedness.

This paragraph (a) does not apply to so much of an alleged indebtedness which is not in fact a bona fide indebtedness, even if the stated rate of interest thereon would be within the safe haven rates prescribed in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section. For example, paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to payments with respect to all or a portion of such alleged indebtedness where in fact all or a portion of an alleged indebtedness is a contribution to the capital of a corporation or a distribution by a corporation with respect to its shares. Similarly, this paragraph (a) does not apply to payments with respect to an alleged purchase-money debt instrument given in consideration for an alleged sale of property between two controlled entities where in fact the transaction constitutes a lease of the property. Payments made with respect to alleged indebtedness (including alleged stated interest thereon) shall be treated according to their substance. See § 1.482-2(a)(3)(i) ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(1)(ii)(A) Interest on bona fide indebtedness.

Paragraph (a) of this section applies only to determine the appropriateness of the rate of interest charged on the principal amount of a bona fide indebtedness between members of a group of controlled entities, including – (1) Loans or advances of money or other consideration (whether or not evidenced by a written instrument); and (2) Indebtedness arising in the ordinary course of business from sales, leases, or the rendition of services by or between members of the group, or any other similar extension of credit ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(1)(i) In general.

Where one member of a group of controlled entities makes a loan or advance directly or indirectly to, or otherwise becomes a creditor of, another member of such group and either charges no interest, or charges interest at a rate which is not equal to an arm’s length rate of interest (as defined in paragraph (a)(2) of this section) with respect to such loan or advance, the district director may make appropriate allocations to reflect an arm’s length rate of interest for the use of such loan or advance ... Read more
Portugal vs "L.... Engenharia e Construções, S.A.", June 2022, Tribunal Central Administrativo Sul, Case 1339/13.0BELRA

Portugal vs “L…. Engenharia e Construções, S.A.”, June 2022, Tribunal Central Administrativo Sul, Case 1339/13.0BELRA

At issue was an interest free loan granted by “L…. Engenharia e Construções, S.A.” to a related party. The loan had been granted before the parties became related following an acquisition in 2007. The tax authorities had issued an assessment where the interest had been determined to 1.4% based on the interest rate that would later apply to the loan according to the agreement. An appeal was filed by “L…. Engenharia e Construções, S.A.” with the Administrative Court, where the assessment was later set aside. An appeal was then filed by the tax authorities with the Administrative Court of Appeal. Judgement of the Court The Administrative Court of Appeal upheld the decision of the administrative court, dismissed the appeal of the tax authorities and annulled the assessment. Excerpt “In this regard, it cannot be ignored that the contract entered into by the Claimant with the company Construtora do L…. SGPS, SA, on 21 September 2004, is not a true shareholder ... Read more
Poland vs "Shopping Centre Developer sp.k.", June 2022, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No II FSK 3050/19

Poland vs “Shopping Centre Developer sp.k.”, June 2022, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No II FSK 3050/19

A Polish company, “Shopping Centre Lender sp.k.”, had been granted three intra group loans in FY 2013 for a maximum amount of EUR 2 million, EUR 115 million and EUR 43.5 million. The interest rate on the loans had been set at 9%. The tax authorities found that the 9% interest rate was higher than the arm’s length rate, and issued an assessment where the interest rate had been lowered to 3.667%, resulting in lower interest expenses and thus additional taxable income. “Shopping Centre Lender sp.k.” filed an appeal with the Administrative Court claiming that the procedure for estimating income – determining the arm’s length interest rate – had not been conducted correctly by the tax authority. In a judgement issued in May 2019 (no. III SA/Wa 1777/18) the Administrative Court issued a judgement in favour of the company. An appeal was then filed by the tax authorities with the Supreme Administrative Court. Judgement of the Supreme Administrative Court The ... Read more
Poland vs D. Sp. z oo, April 2022, Administrative Court, Case No I SA/Bd 128/22

Poland vs D. Sp. z oo, April 2022, Administrative Court, Case No I SA/Bd 128/22

D. Sp. z oo had deducted interest expenses on intra-group loans and expenses related to intra-group services in its taxable income for FY 2015. The loans and services had been provided by a related party in Delaware, USA. Following a inspection, the tax authority issued an assessment where deductions for these costs had been denied resulting in additional taxable income. In regards to the interest expenses the authority held that the circumstances of the transactions indicated that they were made primarily in order to achieve a tax advantage contrary to the object and purpose of the Tax Act (reduction of the tax base by creating a tax cost in the form of interest on loans to finance the purchase of own assets), and the modus operandi of the participating entities was artificial, since under normal trading conditions economic operators, guided primarily by economic objectives and business risk assessment, do not provide financing (by loans or bonds) for the acquisition of ... Read more
Spain vs "XZ SA", March 2022, TEAC, Case No Rec. 4377-2018

Spain vs “XZ SA”, March 2022, TEAC, Case No Rec. 4377-2018

“XZ SA” is a Spanish parent of a tax consolidation group which is part of a multinational group. The Spanish group participates in the group’s cash pooling system, both as a borrower and as a provider of funds. The objective of cash pooling agreements is to manage the cash positions of the participating entities, optimising the group’s financial results by channelling the excess liquidity of the group companies that generate it to the group companies that need financing, resorting to third-party financing when the group itself is not able to finance itself. This achieves greater efficiency in the use of the group’s funds, as well as improving their profitability and reducing the administrative and general financial costs of the entities participating in the agreement. The tax authorities issued an assessment in which the interest rates on deposits and withdraws had been aligned and determined based on a group credit rating. A complaint was filed with the TEAC by XZ SA ... Read more
Italy vs Mauser S.p.A., February 2022, Supreme Court, Case No 6283/2022

Italy vs Mauser S.p.A., February 2022, Supreme Court, Case No 6283/2022

Following an audit, Mauser S.p.A. received four notices of assessment relating to the tax periods from 2004 to 2007. These notices contested, in relation to all tax periods, the elusive purpose of a financing operation of Mauser S.p.A. by the non-resident parent company, as it was aimed at circumventing the non-deductibility of interest expense pursuant to Article 98 pro tempore of Presidential Decree No. 917 of 22 December 1986 (TUIR) on the subject of thin capitalisation. The loan, which began in 2004, had resulted in the recognition of €25,599,000.00 among other reserves, indicated as a payment on account of a future capital increase, as well as €55,040,474.29 as an interest-bearing shareholder loan, the latter of which was subsequently partly waived and also transferred to reserves. The loan had also contributed to the generation of losses in the years in question, which had been covered through the use of the aforementioned reserve (as a reserve), whose interest paid to the parent ... Read more
France vs Electricité de France, January 2022, CAA de VERSAILLES, Case No 20VE00792

France vs Electricité de France, January 2022, CAA de VERSAILLES, Case No 20VE00792

In 2009 the English company EDF Energy UK Ltd (EDFE), a wholly-owned subsidiary of SAS Electricité de France International (SAS EDFI), issued 66,285 bonds convertible into shares (OCAs) for a unit nominal value of EUR 50,000. SAS EDFI subscribed to all of these OCAs for their nominal value, i.e. a total subscription price of EUR 3,314,250,000. The OCAs had a maturity of five years, i.e. until October 16, 2014, and could be converted into new EDFE shares at the instigation of the subscriber at any time after a three-year lock-up period, i.e. from October 16, 2012. Each bond entitled the holder to receive 36,576 EDFE shares after conversion. The annual coupon for the OCAs was set at 1.085%. In this respect, SAS EDFI determined, on the basis of a panel of bond issues of independent comparables, the arm’s length rate that should be applied to conventional bonds, i.e. 4.41% (mid-swap rate and premium of 1.70%), 490 million according to the ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.108

Such an approach would represent a departure from an arm’s length approach based on comparability since it is not based on comparison of actual transactions. Furthermore, it is also important to bear in mind the fact that such letters do not constitute an actual offer to lend. Before proceeding to make a loan, a commercial lender will undertake the relevant due diligence and approval processes that would precede a formal loan offer. Such letters would not therefore generally be regarded as providing evidence of arm’s length terms and conditions ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.107

In some circumstances taxpayers may seek to evidence the arm’s length rate of interest on an intra-group loan by producing written opinions from independent banks, sometimes referred to as a “bankability” opinion, stating what interest rate the bank would apply were it to make a comparable loan to that particular enterprise ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.106

The reliability of economic models’ outcomes depends upon the parameters factored into the specific model and the underlying assumptions adopted. In evaluating the reliability of economic models as an approach to pricing intra-group loans it is important to note that economic models’ outcomes do not represent actual transactions between independent parties and that, therefore, comparability adjustments would be likely required. However, in situations where reliable comparable uncontrolled transactions cannot be identified, economic models may represent tools that can be usefully applied in identifying an arm’s length price for intra-group loans, subject to the same constraints regarding market conditions discussed in paragraph 10.98 ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.105

In their most common variation, economic models calculate an interest rate through a combination of a risk-free interest rate and a number of premiums associated with different aspects of the loan – e.g. default risk, liquidity risk, expected inflation or maturity. In some instances, economic models would also include elements to compensate the lender’s operational expenses ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.104

Certain industries rely on economic models to price intra-group loans by constructing an interest rate as a proxy to an arm’s length interest rate ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.103

Accordingly, the use of credit default swaps to approximate the risk premium associated to intra- group loans will require careful consideration of the above-mentioned circumstances to arrive at an arm’s length interest rate ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.102

As financial instruments traded in the market, credit default swaps may be subject to a high degree of volatility. This volatility may affect the reliability of credit default swaps as proxies to measure the credit risk associated to a particular investment in isolation, since the credit default spreads may reflect not only the risk of default but also other non-related factors such as the liquidity of the credit default swaps contracts or the volume of contracts negotiated. Those circumstances could lead to situations where, for instance, the same instrument may have different credit default swaps spreads ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.101

Credit default swaps reflect the credit risk linked to an underlying financial asset. In the absence of information regarding the underlying asset that could be used as a comparable transaction, taxpayers and tax administrations may use the spreads of credit default swaps to calculate the risk premium associated to intra-group loans ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.100

In some intra-group transactions, the cost of funds approach may be used to price loans where capital is borrowed from an unrelated party which passes from the original borrower through one or more associated intermediary enterprises, as a series of loans, until it reaches the ultimate borrower. In such cases, where only agency or intermediary functions are being performed, as noted at paragraph 7.34, “it may not be appropriate to determine the arm’s length pricing as a mark-up on the costs of the services but rather on the costs of the agency function itself.” ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.99

The application of the cost of funds approach requires consideration of the options realistically available to the borrower. On prevailing facts and circumstances, a borrowing MNE would not enter into a transaction priced under the cost of funds approach if it could obtain the funding under better conditions by entering into an alternative transaction ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.98

One consideration to be kept in mind with the cost of funds approach is that it should be applied by considering the lender’s cost of funds relative to other lenders operating in the market. The cost of funds can vary between different prospective lenders, so the lender cannot simply charge based on its cost of funds, particularly if there is a potential competitor who can obtain funds more cheaply. A lender in a competitive market may seek to price at the lowest possible rate in order to win business. In the commercial environment, this will mean that lenders drive operating costs as low as possible and seek to minimise the cost of obtaining funds to lend ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.97

In the absence of comparable uncontrolled transactions, the cost of funds approach could be used as an alternative to price intra-group loans in some circumstances. The cost of funds will reflect the borrowing costs incurred by the lender in raising the funds to lend. To this would be added the expenses of arranging the loan and the relevant costs incurred in servicing the loan, a risk premium to reflect the various economic factors inherent in the proposed loan, plus a profit margin, which will generally include the lender’s incremental cost of the equity required to support the loan ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.96

In considering arm’s length pricing of loans, the issue of fees and charges in relation to the loan may arise. Independent commercial lenders will sometimes charge fees as part of the terms and conditions of the loan, for example arrangement fees or commitment fees in relation to an undrawn facility. If such charges are seen in a loan between associated enterprises, they should be evaluated in the same way as any other intra-group transaction. In doing so, it must be borne in mind that independent lenders’ charges will in part reflect costs incurred in the process of raising capital and in satisfying regulatory requirements, which associated enterprises might not incur ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.95

Whereas it is unlikely that an MNE group’s average interest rate paid on its external debt meets the comparability requirements to be considered as an internal CUP, it may be possible to identify potential comparable loans within the borrower’s or its MNE group’s financing with an independent lender as the counterparty. As with external CUPs, it may be necessary to make appropriate adjustments to improve comparability. See Example 1 at 1.164 – 1.166 ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter X paragraph 10.93

Arm’s length interest rates can also be based on the return of realistic alternative transactions with comparable economic characteristics. Depending on the facts and circumstances, realistic alternatives to intra-group loans could be, for instance, bond issuances, loans which are uncontrolled transactions, deposits, convertible debentures, commercial papers, etc. In the evaluation of those alternatives as potential comparables it is important to bear in mind that, based on facts and circumstances, comparability adjustments may be required to eliminate the material effects of differences between the controlled intra-group loan and the selected alternative in terms of, for instance, liquidity, maturity, existence of collateral or currency ... Read more