Tag: Most appropriate transfer pricing method

Norway vs "Distributor A AS", March 2021, Tax Board, Case No 01-NS 131/2017

Norway vs “Distributor A AS”, March 2021, Tax Board, Case No 01-NS 131/2017

A fully fledged Norwegian distributor in the H group was restructured and converted into a Limited risk distributor. The tax authorities issued an assessment where the income of the Norwegian distributor was adjusted to the median in a benchmark study prepared by the tax authorities, based on the “Transactional Net Margin Method” (TNMM method). Decision of the Tax Board In a majority decision, the Tax Board determined that the case should be send back to the tax administration for further processing. Excerpt “…The majority agrees with the tax office that deficits over time may give reason to investigate whether the intra-group prices are set on market terms. However, the case is not sufficiently informed for the tribunal to take a final position on this. In order to determine whether the income has been reduced as a result of incorrect pricing of intra-group transactions and debits, it is necessary to analyze the agreed prices and contract terms. A comparability analysis will ... Continue to full case
South Africa vs ABC (PTY) LTD, January 2021, Tax Court of Johannesburg, Case No IT 14305

South Africa vs ABC (PTY) LTD, January 2021, Tax Court of Johannesburg, Case No IT 14305

ABC Ltd is in the business of manufacturing, importing, and selling chemical products. It has a catalyst division that is focused on manufacturing and selling catalytic converters (catalysts) which is used in the abatement of harmful exhaust emissions from motor vehicles. To produce the catalysts, applicant requires, inter alia, some metals known as the Precious Group of Metals (PGMs). It purchases the PGMs from a Swiss entity (“the Swiss Entity”). The PGMs are liquified and mixed with other chemicals to create coating for substrates, all being part of the manufacturing process. Once the manufacturing is complete, the catalysts are sold to customers in South Africa known as the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). ABC Ltd and the Swiss Entity are connected parties as defined in section 1 of the ITA. Following an audit carried out in 2014 the revenue service issued an assessment for FY 2011 by an amount of R114 157 077. According to the revenue service the prices paid ... Continue to full case
Italy vs SIOT S.p.A. June 2020, Cassazione, Case no Sez. 5 Num. 11837

Italy vs SIOT S.p.A. June 2020, Cassazione, Case no Sez. 5 Num. 11837

This case concerns Società Italiana per l’Oleodotto Transalpino Spa (S.I.O.T.) – , which operates the transalpine oil pipeline that crosses Italy, Austria and Germany, with the Austrian subsidiary T.O.O. GmbH and with the German subsidiary D.T.O. GmbH, belonging to the same group of companies. The Italian tax authorities had issued four notices of assessment for FY 2003-2006, related to undeclared revenues, determined in application of the transfer pricing regulations, according to which revenues deriving from transactions with foreign companies must be determined according to the “normal value” of the goods sold or services provided, cf, the arm’s length principle. S.I.O.T. had allocated profit from the activity between the Italien, Austrian and German pipelines using the profit split method – where kilometers of pipeline was the splitting factor. However, the cost of maintenance borne of S.I.O.T. was almost three times higher than that of the other two companies managing the pipeline due to the geography. The tax authorities therefore adjusted the ... Continue to full case
Poland vs L S.A, June 2019, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No. II FSK 1808/17 - Wyrok NSA

Poland vs L S.A, June 2019, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No. II FSK 1808/17 – Wyrok NSA

A Polish subsidiary in a German Group had taken out a significant inter-company loan resulting in a significantly reduced income due to interest deductions. At issue was application of the Polish arm’s length provisions and the arm’s length nature of the interest rate on the loan. The tax authorities had issued an assessment where the interest rate on the loans had been adjusted and the taxable income increased. On that basis, a complaint was filed by the company to the Administrative Court. The administrative court rejected the complaint and ruled in favor of the tax authorities. An appeal was then brought before the Supreme Administrative Court. The Supreme Administrative Court rejected the appeal, although it did not share some of the conclusions and statements of the Court of first instance. The key issue in the case was to determine is whether the provisions of Art. 11 (Containing the Polish arm’s length provisions), allowing the authority to determine the income of ... Continue to full case
Poland vs A Sp. z o.o., June 2019, Administrative Court, Case No GD 530/19

Poland vs A Sp. z o.o., June 2019, Administrative Court, Case No GD 530/19

A Polish Subsidiary A SP. z o.o. had incurred a loss in 2012 in the amount of PLN 1,357,333.66 and following an audit the tax authorities issued an assessment whereby the loss was reduced by an amount of PLN 234,019.90. The disputable issue was whether, in the circumstances of the case under consideration, the tax authorities correctly determined the amount of the applicant’s loss for 2012 in an amount other than that resulting from the correction of the declaration due to the finding that the Company undervalued income from transactions concluded with related entities for a total amount of PLN 234,019.90. The Administrative Court dismissed the complaint of A SP z o.o. According the the provided transfer pricing documentation the company had applied a TNMM and determined remuneration based on cost added a fixed percentage of 4% for the parent company, 8% for other companies. Meanwhile, the mark-ups actually applied by the applicant company in transactions concluded with related entities: ... Continue to full case
TPG2017 Chapter II Annex II example 5

TPG2017 Chapter II Annex II example 5

20. WebCo is a member of an MNE group that develops IT solutions for business customers. Recently, WebCo designed the architecture of a web crawler to collect pricing data from internet sites. WebCo has written the code of the program so it is able to systematically scan web pages in a more efficient and faster way than any other similar search engines available in the market. 21. At this stage, WebCo licenses the program to ScaleCo, a company in the same MNE group. ScaleCo is responsible for scaling-up the web crawler and for deciding the crawling strategy. ScaleCo is a specialist in designing add-ons for the web crawler and in customising the product to address gaps in the market. Without these contributions, the system would not be able to meet potential customers’ needs. 22. Under the terms of the licence, WebCo will continue developing the underlying base technology and ScaleCo will use these developments to scale up the web crawler ... Continue to full case
TPG2017 Chapter II Annex II example 4

TPG2017 Chapter II Annex II example 4

16. The facts in this example are the same as in Example 3, except that the marketing activities performed by Company B are more limited and do not significantly enhance the goodwill or reputation associated with the trademark. Company B has a mechanism whereby customer feedback on the products it sells is relayed to Company A, but this is a relatively simple process, and does not constitute a unique and valuable contribution. In sum, its distribution activities are not a particular source of competitive advantage in its industry. In particular, the potential success of the new line of products is largely dependent on its technical specifications, its design, and the price at which the products are sold to final customers. 17. The functional analysis concludes that Company A assumes the risks associated with the design, development and manufacturing of the product and Company B assumes the risks relating to marketing and distribution. 18. Marketing and distribution risks assumed by Company ... Continue to full case
TPG2017 Chapter II Annex II example 2

TPG2017 Chapter II Annex II example 2

5. A Co, a member of T Group, is a company incorporated in Country A whose principal activity is the growing and processing of tea. A Co identifies, acquires and cultivates land with extremely good soil for growing tea. A Co has developed extensive know- how in respect of tea-growing, including maximising the desirable qualities of the tea it grows through its cultivation methods. The properties of the soil together with the cultivation methods give A Co’s tea a highly sought after flavour. 6. A Co processes tea by undertaking the following activities: sorting leaf, grading, full or partial fermenting, and blending and packaging for export as per customer order specifications. Blending entails using extensive proprietary know-how to mix the various teas in order to get blends with the unique tastes appreciated by customers of T Group. Tea produced by A Co has won international acclaim for its unique taste and aroma. 7. A Co sells its tea to B ... Continue to full case

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.183

In some cases, a significant issue for the reliability of cost-based splitting factors is the determination of the relevant period of time from which the elements of determination of the profit splitting factor(s) (e.g. assets, costs, or others) should be taken into account. A difficulty arises because there can be a lag between the time when expenses are incurred and the time when value is created, and it is sometimes difficult to decide which period’s expenses should be used. For example, in the case of a cost-based factor, using the expenditure on a single-year basis may be suitable for some cases, while in some other cases it may be more suitable to use accumulated expenditure (net of depreciation or amortisation, where appropriate in the circumstances) incurred in the previous as well as the current years. Depending on the facts and circumstances of the case, this determination may have a significant effect on the allocation of profits amongst the parties. As ... Continue to full case

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.182

In identifying and applying appropriate cost-based profit splitting factors a number of issues may need to be considered. One is that there may be differences between the parties in the timing of expenditure. For example, research and development costs that are relevant to the value of a party’s contributions may have been incurred several years in the past, whereas the expenditure for another party may be current. As a result, it may be necessary to bring historic costs to current values (as discussed further below) in addition to the risk weighting described in paragraph 2.181. The relevant costs may be part of a larger cost pool that needs to be analysed and allocated to the contributions made to the profit split transaction. For example, marketing costs may be incurred and recorded across several product lines, whereas only one product line is the subject of the profit split transaction. Where location savings retained by member(s) of the MNE group are a ... Continue to full case

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.145

This section has described certain characteristics of the transactional profit split method and provided a number of potential indicators as to when it may be found to be the most appropriate method, as well as a number of factors which may point in the opposite direction. The guidance in this regard does not seek to be comprehensive, nor is it prescriptive. The presence or absence of one or more of the indicators described in this section will not necessarily lead to the conclusion that the transactional profit split will (or will not) be the most appropriate method in a particular case. Each case needs to be analysed on its own facts, and it will be important to consider the relative merits and shortcomings of available transfer pricing methods ... Continue to full case

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.143

In general, it will tend to be the case that the presence of factors indicating that a transactional profit split is the most appropriate method will correspond to an absence of factors indicating that an alternative transfer pricing method—one which relies entirely on comparables—is the most appropriate method, determined in accordance with paragraph 2.2 of these Guidelines. Put another way, if information on reliable comparable uncontrolled transactions is available to price the transaction in its entirety, it is less likely that the transactional profit split method will be the most appropriate method. However, a lack of comparables alone is insufficient to warrant the use of a transactional profit split. See paragraph 2.128 ... Continue to full case

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.140

A transactional profit split may also be found to be the most appropriate method where, according to the accurately delineated transaction, the various economically significant risks in relation to the transaction are separately assumed by the parties, but those risks are so closely inter-related and/or correlated that the playing out of the risks of each party cannot reliably be isolated. See Example 10 in Annex II to Chapter II ... Continue to full case

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.139

A transactional profit split may be found to be the most appropriate method where, according to the accurately delineated transaction, each party to the controlled transaction shares the assumption of one or more of the economically significant risks in relation to that transaction (see paragraph 1.95) ... Continue to full case

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.137

Where a party contributes to the control of economically significant risk, but that risk is assumed by the other party to the transaction, this may, in some cases, demonstrate that it is appropriate for the first party to share in the potential upside and downside associated with that risk, commensurate with its contribution to control. See paragraph 1.105. However, the mere fact that an entity performs control functions in relation to a risk will not necessarily lead to the conclusion that the transactional profit split is the most appropriate method in the case ... Continue to full case

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.136

Where business operations are highly integrated, the extent to which the parties share the assumption of the same economically significant risks or separately assume closely related economically significant risks will be relevant to the determination of the most appropriate method and, if a transactional profit split is considered the most appropriate method, how it should be applied; in particular whether a split of actual profits or of anticipated profits should be used. See section C.4.1 ... Continue to full case

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.133

Although most MNE groups are integrated to some extent, a particularly high degree of integration in certain business operations is an indicator for the consideration of the transactional profit split method. A high degree of integration means that the way in which one party to the transaction performs functions, uses assets and assumes risks is interlinked with, and cannot reliably be evaluated in isolation from, the way in which another party to the transaction performs functions, uses assets and assumes risks. In contrast, many instances of integration within an MNE result in situations in which the contribution of at least one party to the transaction can in fact be reliably evaluated by reference to comparable uncontrolled transactions. For example, where complementary but discrete activities are undertaken by the entities, it may be the case that it is possible to find reliable comparables since the functions, assets and risks involved in each discrete stage may be comparable to those in uncontrolled ... Continue to full case

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.129

It may also be relevant to consider industry practices. For instance, if information is available that independent parties do commonly use profit splitting approaches in similar situations, careful consideration should be given to whether the transactional profit split method may be the most appropriate method for the controlled transactions. Such industry practices may be a pointer to the fact that each party makes unique and valuable contributions, and/or that the parties are highly inter-dependent upon each other. Conversely, if independent parties engaged in comparable transactions are found to make use of other pricing methods, this should also be taken into account in determining the most appropriate transfer pricing method ... Continue to full case

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.118

While there is no requirement in these Guidelines to undertake exhaustive analysis or testing of every method in each case, the selection of the most appropriate method should take into account the relative appropriateness and reliability of the selected method as compared to other methods which could be used ... Continue to full case

TPG2018 Chapter II paragraph 2.117

Guidance on how to determine whether the transactional profit split method is likely to be the most appropriate method is set out below, including the identification of certain features of a transaction which may be relevant. However it is important to note that there is no prescriptive rule for establishing when a particular transfer pricing method is the most appropriate method ... Continue to full case
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