Tag: Multi-year data

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(E)Example 4.

(i) USP, a U.S. corporation, manufactures product Y in the United States and sells it to FSub, which acts as USP’s exclusive distributor of product Y in Country N. The resale price method described in § 1.482-3(c) is used to evaluate whether the transfer price charged by USP to FSub for the 1994 taxable year for product Y was arm’s length. For the period 1992 through 1994, FSub had a gross profit margin for each year of 13%. A, B, C and D are uncontrolled distributors of products that compete directly with product Y in country N. After making appropriate adjustments in accordance with §§ 1.482-1(d)(2) and 1.482-3(c), the gross profit margins for A, B, C, and D are as follows: 1992 1993 1994 Average A 13 3 8 8.00 B 11 13 2 8.67 7C 4 7 13 8.00 7D 7 9 6 7.33 (ii) Applying the provisions of § 1.482-1(e), the district director determines that the arm’s length range of ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(E) Example 3.

FP manufactures product X in Country M and sells it to USSub, which distributes X in the United States. USSub realizes losses with respect to the controlled transactions in each of five consecutive taxable years. In each of the five consecutive years a different uncontrolled comparable realized a loss with respect to comparable transactions equal to or greater than USSub’s loss. Pursuant to paragraph (f)(3)(iii)(C) of this section, the district director examines whether the uncontrolled comparables realized similar losses over a comparable period of time, and finds that each of the five comparables realized losses in only one of the five years, and their average result over the five-year period was a profit. Based on this data, the district director may conclude that the controlled taxpayer’s results are not within the arm’s length range over the five year period, since the economic conditions that resulted in the controlled taxpayer’s loss did not have a comparable effect over a comparable period of time ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(E) Example 2.

(i) FP, a Country X corporation, designs and manufactures machinery in Country X. FP’s costs are incurred in Country X currency. USSub is the exclusive distributor of FP’s machinery in the United States. The price of the machinery sold by FP to USSub is expressed in Country X currency. Thus, USSub bears all of the currency risk associated with fluctuations in the exchange rate between the time the contract is signed and the payment is made. The prices charged by FP to USSub for 1995 are under examination. In that year, the value of the dollar depreciated against the currency of Country X, and as a result, USSub’s gross margin was only 8%. (ii) UD is an uncontrolled distributor of similar machinery that performs distribution functions substantially the same as those performed by USSub, except that UD purchases and resells machinery in transactions where both the purchase and resale prices are denominated in U.S. dollars. Thus, UD had no currency ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(E) Example 1.

P sold product Z to S for $60 per unit in 1995. Applying the resale price method to data from uncontrolled comparables for the same year establishes an arm’s length range of prices for the controlled transaction from $52 to $59 per unit. Since the price charged in the controlled transaction falls outside the range, the district director would ordinarily make an allocation under section 482. However, in this case there are cyclical factors that affect the results of the uncontrolled comparables (and that of the controlled transaction) that cannot be adequately accounted for by specific adjustments to the data for 1995. Therefore, the district director considers results over multiple years to account for these factors. Under these circumstances, it is appropriate to average the results of the uncontrolled comparables over the years 1993, 1994, and 1995 to determine an arm’s length range. The averaged results establish an arm’s length range of $56 to $58 per unit. For consistency, the ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(E) Examples.

The following examples, in which S and P are controlled taxpayers, illustrate this paragraph (f)(2)(iii). Examples 1 and 4 also illustrate the principle of the arm’s length range of paragraph (e) of this section ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(D) Applications of methods using multiple year averages.

If a comparison of a controlled taxpayer’s average result over a multiple year period with the average results of uncontrolled comparables over the same period would reduce the effect of short-term variations that may be unrelated to transfer pricing, it may be appropriate to establish a range derived from the average results of uncontrolled comparables over a multiple year period to determine if an adjustment should be made. In such a case the district director may make an adjustment if the controlled taxpayer’s average result for the multiple year period is not within such range. Such a range must be determined in accordance with § 1.482-1(e) (Arm’s length range). An adjustment in such a case ordinarily will be equal to the difference, if any, between the controlled taxpayer’s result for the taxable year and the mid-point of the uncontrolled comparables’ results for that year. If the interquartile range is used to determine the range of average results for the multiple ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(C) Comparable effect over comparable period.

Data from multiple years may be considered to determine whether the same economic conditions that caused the controlled taxpayer’s results had a comparable effect over a comparable period of time on the uncontrolled comparables that establish the arm’s length range. For example, given that uncontrolled taxpayers enter into transactions with the ultimate expectation of earning a profit, persistent losses among controlled taxpayers may be an indication of non-arm’s length dealings. Thus, if a controlled taxpayer that realizes a loss with respect to a controlled transaction seeks to demonstrate that the loss is within the arm’s length range, the district director may take into account data from taxable years other than the taxable year of the transaction to determine whether the loss was attributable to arm’s length dealings. The rule of this paragraph (f)(2)(iii)(C) is illustrated by Example 3 of paragraph (f)(2)(iii)(E) of this section ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(B) Circumstances warranting consideration of multiple year data.

The extent to which it is appropriate to consider multiple year data depends on the method being applied and the issue being addressed. Circumstances that may warrant consideration of data from multiple years include the extent to which complete and accurate data are available for the taxable year under review, the effect of business cycles in the controlled taxpayer’s industry, or the effects of life cycles of the product or intangible property being examined. Data from one or more years before or after the taxable year under review must ordinarily be considered for purposes of applying the provisions of paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of this section (risk), paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section (market share strategy), § 1.482-4(f)(2) (periodic adjustments), § 1.482-5 (comparable profits method), § 1.482-9(f) (comparable profits method for services), and § 1.482-9(i) (contingent-payment contractual terms for services). On the other hand, multiple year data ordinarily will not be considered for purposes of applying the comparable uncontrolled price method of § 1.482-3(b) or the comparable uncontrolled services price method of § 1.482-9(c) (except to the extent that ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(A) In general.

The results of a controlled transaction ordinarily will be compared with the results of uncontrolled comparables occurring in the taxable year under review. It may be appropriate, however, to consider data relating to the uncontrolled comparables or the controlled taxpayer for one or more years before or after the year under review. If data relating to uncontrolled comparables from multiple years is used, data relating to the controlled taxpayer for the same years ordinarily must be considered. However, if such data is not available, reliable data from other years, as adjusted under paragraph (d)(2) (Standard of comparability) of this section may be used ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.192

In these circumstances, the tax administration can consider ex post outcomes as presumptive evidence about the appropriateness of the ex ante pricing arrangements. However, the consideration of ex post evidence should be based on a determination that such evidence is necessary to be taken into account to assess the reliability of the information on which ex ante pricing has been based. Where the tax administration is able to confirm the reliability of the information on which ex ante pricing has been based, notwithstanding the approach described in this section, then adjustments based on ex post profit levels should not be made. In evaluating the ex ante pricing arrangements, the tax administration is entitled to use the ex post evidence about financial outcomes to inform the determination of the arm’s length pricing arrangements, including any contingent pricing arrangements, that would have been made between independent enterprises at the time of the transaction, considering the guidance in paragraph 6.185. Depending on the ... Read more
Panama vs "Construction S.A.", December 2021, Administrative Tax Court, Case No TAT- RF-111 (112/2019)

Panama vs “Construction S.A.”, December 2021, Administrative Tax Court, Case No TAT- RF-111 (112/2019)

“Construction Service S.A.” is active in Design, Repair and Construction of buildings. During the FY 2011-2013 it paid for services – management services and construction services – rendered from related parties. Following an audit the tax authorities issued an assessment where payments for these services had been adjusted by reference to the arm’s length principle. According to the authorities the benchmark studies in the company’s transfer pricing documentation suffered from comparability defects and moreover it had not been sufficiently demonstrated that the services had been effectively provided. The tax authorities pointed out that since the company is not considered comparable to the taxpayer, the interquartile range would be from 5.15% to 8.30% with a median of 5.70%; therefore, the taxpayer’s operating margin of 4.07% is outside the interquartile range. Not satisfied with the adjustment “Construction Service S.A.” filed an appeal with the Tax Court Judgement of the Tax Court The court ruled in favour of “construction S.A” and revoked the ... Read more
India vs. Adaptec (India) P. Ltd., March 2015, Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, ITA.No. 206/Hyd/2014

India vs. Adaptec (India) P. Ltd., March 2015, Income Tax Appellate Tribunal, ITA.No. 206/Hyd/2014

Adaptec. Ltd. is engaged in the business of software, design and development and testing in the field of storage solutions. It filed its tax return declaring income of Rs.89,51,330. Since assessee is functioning as service provider to it’s group parent on cost + 10% margin basis. Following an audit, the tax authorities selected 17 comparable companies, and arrived at an arithmetic mean of 25.26% and issued an assessment of additional taxable income of Rs.63,53,365. Adaptec filed an appeal with the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal. Judgement of the Court The Court ruled predominantly in favour of the tax authorities but remanded the case for recalculations. India vs Adaptec_India_P_Ltd 206-Hyd-2014 ... Read more