Tag: Multiple year data

Multiple year data is often useful to consider in a transfer pricing analysis, and should be used where they add value (more reliability) to the price determination.

Spain vs BIOMERIEUX ESPAÑA SA, February 2021, National Court, Case No 2021:416

Spain vs BIOMERIEUX ESPAÑA SA, February 2021, National Court, Case No 2021:416

BIOMERIEUX ESPAÑA SA is active in the business of clinical and biological analysis, production, distribution, training and technical assistance. Likewise, the provision of computer services and, in particular, the computer management of laboratories. Following an audit the tax authorities found that the controlled prices agreed for the acquisition of instruments and consumables between bioMérieux España and its related entities, bioMérieux SA and bioMérieux Inc, did not provided bioMérieux España with an arm’s length return on is controlled activities. A tax assessment was issued for FY 2008 on the basis af a thorough critical analysis of the benchmark study provided by the BIOMERIEUX, and detailed reasoning and analysis in regards to comparability and market developments. Judgement of the National Court The Audiencia Nacional dismissed the appeal of Biomerieux España SA and decided in favour of the tax authorities. Excerpts “As we already reasoned in our SAN (2nd) of 6 March 2019 (Rec. 353/2015 ), it is legitimate to resort to what ... Continue to full case

OECD COVID-19 TPG paragraph 29

As with other analyses under the OECD TPG, numerous considerations may come into play, including the availability and choice of potential transfer pricing methods and comparables, and the interrelationship among them and the parameters of the testing periods (e.g. a transaction-based method may have a different time frame from a profit-based method). Just as it may improve reliability to use separate or more carefully circumscribed testing periods (or price setting periods) in some fact patterns (see paragraph 27), in other fact patterns the use of combined periods (that include both years that are impacted by the pandemic and years that are not impacted) may improve reliability.14 This approach would aggregate the financial results of FY2020, which may be exceptional, with the more normal results of prior years in order to test the arm’s length nature of the transfer pricing policy applied in FY2020. 14 Paragraphs 3.75 and 3.79 of Chapter III of the OECD TPG ... Continue to full case

OECD COVID-19 TPG paragraph 28

This aspect is also relevant in performing the comparability analysis. For instance, assume government intervention forces a taxpayer to close its distribution facilities for three months. In undertaking a benchmark analysis, care should be taken in verifying that comparable enterprises have faced similar restrictions or conditions. Otherwise, it might be necessary to adjust the period over which the comparison is performed (e.g. excluding the economic data corresponding to the three months where the taxpayer was unable to operate). Taxpayers and tax administrations should determine on a case-by-case basis the extent to which these adjustments are necessary in circumstances where the potential differences may not have a material impact on the comparability. In this respect, the guidance in paragraphs 3.50 to 3.52 of the OECD TPG is relevant ... Continue to full case

OECD COVID-19 TPG paragraph 27

As a pragmatic means of addressing divergent economic conditions in the pre- or post-pandemic period, and when the pandemic was in effect and its effects on economic conditions were material, it may be appropriate to have separate testing periods (and periods considered for price setting) for the duration of the pandemic or for the period when certain material effects of the pandemic were most evident. This may be appropriate, so long as the data from independent comparables can be measured over a similar period in a consistent manner. Care should be taken to ensure the financial data of years affected by the pandemic do not unduly distort results from pre- or post-pandemic periods. In addition, government intervention in a market may materially affect the performance of activities. For example, in certain situations, the activities that otherwise normally would have occurred absent the pandemic may not occur in the same manner (or at all) during the period that the government intervention ... Continue to full case

OECD COVID-19 TPG paragraph 26

The principles outlined in Section B.5 of Chapter III of the OECD TPG regarding the use of multiple year data and averages remain applicable. In ordinary circumstances, the use of multiple year data and multiple year averages for comparability analyses may have certain advantages. For example, it can be used as a means to mitigate the impact of accounting differences, appropriately measure the effects on profitability for the tested party based on its business and product life cycles, and to evaluate the same for the comparables, such that the reliability of the comparison is increased.13 13 Paragraph 3.77 of Chapter III of the OECD TPG ... Continue to full case

TPG2020 Chapter X paragraph 10.32

Macroeconomic trends such as central bank lending rates or interbank reference rates, and financial market events like a credit crisis, can affect prices. In this regard, the precise timing of the issue of a financial instrument in the primary market or the selection of comparable data in the secondary market can therefore be very significant in terms of comparability. For instance, it is not likely that multiple year data on loan issuances will provide useful comparables. The opposite is more likely to be true, i.e. that the closer in timing a comparable loan issuance is to the issuance of the tested transaction, the less the likelihood of different economic factors prevailing, notwithstanding that particular events can cause rapid changes in lending markets ... Continue to full case
Argentina vs Volkswagen Argentina S.A., December 2019, Court of Appeal, Case No CAF 057064/2013/CA001 - CA002

Argentina vs Volkswagen Argentina S.A., December 2019, Court of Appeal, Case No CAF 057064/2013/CA001 – CA002

The case of Volkswagen Argentina S.A. revolves around benchmarking and comparability adjustments. In the transfer pricing analysis Volkswagen adjusts the results of the tested party (local entity) for extraordinary losses due to local economic conditions. The Federal Court of Appeals supports the adjustment to the results of the tested party and also the approach of averaging out the results of the tested party over a period of three year. Click here for English Translation ARGVW dec 2019 ... Continue to full case
Sweden vs Absolut Company AB, June 2019, Supreme Administrative Court, Case no 1913-18

Sweden vs Absolut Company AB, June 2019, Supreme Administrative Court, Case no 1913-18

The Absolut Company AB had been issued an assessment of additional taxable income of SEK 247 mio. The assessment was based on the position that (1) The Absolut Company AB had been selling below the arm’s length price to an US group company – The Absolut Spirit Company Inc. (ASCI), and (2) that acquired distribution services from ASCI that had been priced above the arm’s length price. In 2018 the Swedish Administrative Court of Appeal ruled in favor of the tax administration. The Swedish Supreme Administrative Court has now ruled in favor of The Absolute Company AB. According to the Supreme Administrative Court the Swedish Tax Agency did not fulfill the burden of proof. The Supreme Administrative Court further states that the full range of results in the benchmark study could be applied and that a multiple year analysis of the tested party data can be used to support an arm’s length result. Click here for translation Sweden vs Absolut AB 2019 ... Continue to full case

TPG2017 Chapter III paragraph 3.79

The use of multiple year data does not necessarily imply the use of multiple year averages. Multiple year data and averages can however be used in some circumstances to improve reliability of the range. See paragraphs 3.57-3.62 for a discussion of statistical tools ... Continue to full case

TPG2017 Chapter III paragraph 3.78

Multiple year data can also improve the process of selecting third party comparables e.g. by identifying results that may indicate a significant variance from the underlying comparability characteristics of the controlled transaction being reviewed, in some cases leading to the rejection of the comparable, or to detect anomalies in third party information ... Continue to full case

TPG2017 Chapter III paragraph 3.77

Multiple year data will also be useful in providing information about the relevant business and product life cycles of the comparables. Differences in business or product life cycles may have a material effect on transfer pricing conditions that needs to be assessed in determining comparability. The data from earlier years may show whether the independent enterprise engaged in a comparable transaction was affected by comparable economic conditions in a comparable manner, or whether different conditions in an earlier year materially affected its price or profit so that it should not be used as a comparable ... Continue to full case

TPG2017 Chapter III paragraph 3.76

In order to obtain a complete understanding of the facts and circumstances surrounding the controlled transaction, it generally might be useful to examine data from both the year under examination and prior years. The analysis of such information might disclose facts that may have influenced (or should have influenced) the determination of the transfer price. For example, the use of data from past years will show whether a taxpayer’s reported loss on a transaction is part of a history of losses on similar transactions, the result of particular economic conditions in a prior year that increased costs in the subsequent year, or a reflection of the fact that a product is at the end of its life cycle. Such an analysis may be particularly useful where a transactional profit method is applied. See paragraph 1.131 on the usefulness of multiple year data in examining loss situations. Multiple year data can also improve the understanding of long term arrangements ... Continue to full case

TPG2017 Chapter III paragraph 3.75

In practice, examining multiple year data is often useful in a comparability analysis, but it is not a systematic requirement. Multiple year data should be used where they add value to the transfer pricing analysis. It would not be appropriate to set prescriptive guidance as to the number of years to be covered by multiple year analyses ... Continue to full case

TPG2017 Chapter II paragraph 2.110

See in particular paragraphs 3.18-3.19 for guidance on the tested party, paragraphs 3.55-3.66 for guidance on the arm’s length range, and paragraphs 3.75-3.79 for guidance on multiple year data ... Continue to full case

TPG2017 Chapter I paragraph 1.111

The existence of a cycle (e.g. economic, business, or product cycle) is one of the economic circumstances that should be identified. See paragraph 3.77 in relation to the use of multiple year data where there are cycles ... Continue to full case
Sweden vs Svenske Shell AB, October 1991, Supreme Administrative Court, Case no RÅ 1991 ref. 107

Sweden vs Svenske Shell AB, October 1991, Supreme Administrative Court, Case no RÅ 1991 ref. 107

Svenske Shell AB imported crude oil from its UK sister company SIPC over a five-year period. Imports included the purchase and shipping of crude oil to the port of Gothenburg i Sweden from different parts of the world. The price of the oil was based on a framework agreement entered into between the parties, while the freight was calculated based on templates with no direct connection to the actual individual transport. The tax authorities considered that the pricing in both parts was incorrect and therefore partially refused deduction of the costs of oil imports. The assessment (and the later judgement of the Supreme Administrative Court) was based on the wording of the former Swedish “arm’s length” provision dating back to 1965. Decision of Court The Court did not consider that a price deviation has been sufficiently established where the applied price of only a single transaction deviates from the market price. Applying such a narrow view on price comparisons in ... Continue to full case