Tag: Place Of Effective Management  (POEM)

Place of effective management – POEM – is the test suggested in the tie-breaker rule of the OECD model tax treaty to determine the residence of a company where under the domestic laws of both contracting states the company is resident in both of them. The test determines that in such cases the company would, for treaty purposes, be resident in the state in which its place of effective management is situated.

Netherlands vs "POEM B.V.", June 2023, Court of Appeal, Case No. BKDH-21/01014 to BKDH-21/01020 (ECLI:NL:GHSHE:2023:2393)

Netherlands vs “POEM B.V.”, June 2023, Court of Appeal, Case No. BKDH-21/01014 to BKDH-21/01020 (ECLI:NL:GHSHE:2023:2393)

In 2001 “POEM B.V.” was incorporated in the Netherlands under Dutch law by its shareholder X, and has since then been registered in the Dutch trade register. In 2010 its administrative seat was moved to Malta where it was also registered as an ‘Oversea Company’. X was from the Netherlands but moved to Switzerland in 2010. In “POEM B.V.”‘s Maltese tax return for the year 2013, the entire income was registered as ‘Untaxed Account’ and no tax was paid in Malta. “POEM B.V.” distributed dividend to X in FY 2011-2014. Following an audit the Dutch tax authorities issued an assessment where corporate income tax and withholding tax over the dividend had been calculated. The assessment was based on Article 4 (4) of the Dutch-Maltese DTA under which “POEM B.V.” was deemed to be a resident of the Netherlands. Not satisfied with the assessment “POEM B.V.” filed an appeal arguing that it was a resident of Malta (or alternatively Switzerland) and ... Read more
Belgium vs "Uniclick B.V.", June 2021, Court of Appeal, Case No 2016/AR/455

Belgium vs “Uniclick B.V.”, June 2021, Court of Appeal, Case No 2016/AR/455

“Uniclick B.V.” had performed all the important DEMPE functions with regard to intangible assets as well as managing all risks related to development activities without being remunerated for this. Royalty-income related to the activities had instead been received by a foreign group company incorporated in Ireland and with its place of management in Luxembourg. In 2012, the administration sent notices of amendment to the tax return to the respondent for assessment years 2006 and 2010. The tax administration stated that “Uniclick B.V.”, through its director B.T. and employees M.C. and S.M., invented and developed the Uniclic technology in 1996 and continued to exploit it, and that the subsequent transfer of rights to the Uniclic invention to U.B. BV was simulated. The administration added the profits foregone annually by the “Uniclick B.V.”, i.e. the royalties received by F. from third party licensees less the costs borne by F., to “Uniclick B.V’s” taxable base. “Uniclick B.V.” disagreed with this and argued, among ... Read more
Austria vs S GmbH, November 2020, Verwaltungsgerichtshof, Case No Ra 2019/15/0162-3

Austria vs S GmbH, November 2020, Verwaltungsgerichtshof, Case No Ra 2019/15/0162-3

S GmbH was an Austrian trading company of a group. In the course of business restructuring, the real estate division of the Austrian-based company was initially separated from the “trading operations/brands” division on the demerger date of 31 March 2007. The trademark rights remained with the previous trading company, which was the parent company of the group, now M GmbH. On 25 September 2007, M GmbH transferred all trademark rights to a permanent establishment in Malta, which was set up in the same year, to which it also moved its place of management on 15 January 2008. Licence agreements were concluded between S GmbH and M GmbH, which entitle S GmbH to use the trademarks of M GmbH for advertising and marketing measures in connection with its business operations in return for a (turnover-dependent) licence fee. The tax authorities (re)assessed the corporate income tax for the years 2008 and 2009. The audit had shown that the licence fees were to ... Read more
India vs Formula One World Championship Ltd, April 2017, India's Supreme Court

India vs Formula One World Championship Ltd, April 2017, India’s Supreme Court

India’s Supreme Court found that Formula One World Championship which conducts Formula One racing events, has a permanent establishment (PE) for its business in India and income accruing from it is taxable. “We are of the opinion that the test laid down by the Andhra Pradesh High Court in Visakhapatnam Port Trust case fully stands satisfied. Not only the Buddh International Circuit is a fixed place where the commercial/economic activity of conducting F-1 Championship was carried out, one could clearly discern that it was a virtual projection of the foreign enterprise, namely, Formula-1 (i.e. FOWC) on the soil of this country. It is already noted above that as per Philip Baker, a PE must have three characteristics: stability, productivity and dependence. All characteristics are present in this case. Fixed place of business in the form of physical location, i.e. Buddh International Circuit, was at the disposal of FOWC through which it conducted business. Aesthetics of law and taxation jurisprudence leave no doubt ... Read more