Tag: Puerto Rico

US vs Medtronic, August 2022, U.S. Tax Court, T.C. Memo. 2022-84

US vs Medtronic, August 2022, U.S. Tax Court, T.C. Memo. 2022-84

Medtronic had used the comparable uncontrolled transactions (CUT) method to determine the arm’s length royalty rates received from its manufacturing subsidiary in Puerto Rico for use of IP under an inter-group license agreement. The tax authorities found that Medtronic left too much profit in Puerto Rico. Using a “modified CPM” the IRS concluded that at arm’s length 90 percent of Medtronic’s “devices and leads” profit should have been allocated to the US parent and only 10 percent to the operations in Puerto Rico. Medtronic brought the case to the Tax Court. The Tax Court applied its own analysis and concluded that the Pacesetter agreement was the best CUT to calculate the arm’s length result for license payments. This decision from the Tax Court was then appealed by the IRS to the Court of Appeals. In 2018, the Court of Appeal found that the Tax Court’s factual findings had been insufficient. The Court of Appeals stated taht: “The Tax Court determined ... Read more
Amgen in Billion Dollar Transfer Pricing Dispute with the IRS

Amgen in Billion Dollar Transfer Pricing Dispute with the IRS

Amgen, in its quarterly report for the period ended March 31, 2022, disclosed that, not only has the group been issued a notice of assessments from the IRS for FY 2010-2012 resulting in additional taxes of approximately $3.6 billion plus interest – as previously reported – it has also received a Revenue Agent Reports (RAR) for 2013-2015 resulting in additional taxes of approximately $5.1 billion, plus interest and penalties of approximately $2.0 billion. Furthermore, it is disclosed that Amgen is currently under examination by the IRS for the years 2016, 2017 and 2018 and by a number of state and foreign tax jurisdictions The main dispute relates to the allocation of profits between Amgen group entities in the United States and the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico. Excerpt from Amgen’s quarterly report for the period ended March 31, 2022 4. Income taxes The effective tax rates for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, were 11.9% and 11.4%, ... Read more
Microsoft - Taxes and Transfer Pricing

Microsoft – Taxes and Transfer Pricing

Microsoft’s tax affairs have been in the spotlight of tax authorities all over the World during the last decade. Why? The setup used by Microsoft involves shifting profits from sales in the US, Europe and Asia to regional operating centers placed in low tax jurisdictions (Bermuda, Luxembourg, Ireland, Singapore and Puerto Rico). The following text has been provided by Microsoft in a US filing concerning effective tax and global allocation of income: “Our effective tax rate for the three months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016 was 18% and 17%, respectively. Our effective tax rate was lower than the U.S. federal statutory rate primarily due to earnings taxed at lower rates in foreign jurisdictions resulting from producing and distributing our products and services through our foreign regional operations centers in Ireland, Singapore, and Puerto Rico.“ “In fiscal year 2017, our U.S. income before income taxes was $6.8 billion and our foreign income before income taxes was $23.1 billion. In fiscal year 2016, ... Read more
US vs Medtronic, August 2018, U.S. Court of Appeals, Case No: 17-1866

US vs Medtronic, August 2018, U.S. Court of Appeals, Case No: 17-1866

The IRS was of the opinion, that Medtronic erred in allocating the profit earned from its devises and leads between its businesses located in the United States and its device manufacturer in Puerto Rico. To determine the arm’s length price for Medtronic’s intercompany licensing agreements the comparable profits method was therefor applied by the IRS, rather than the comparable uncontrolled transaction (CUT) method used by Medtronic. Medtronic brought the case to the Tax Court. The Tax Court applied its own valuation analysis and concluded that the Pacesetter agreement was the best CUT to calculate the arm’s length result for intangible property. This decision from the Tax Court was then appealed by the IRS to the Court of Appeals. The Court of Appeal found that the Tax Court’s factual findings were insufficient. The Tax Court failed to: address whether the circumstances of the Pacesetter settlement was comparable to the licensing agreements in this case, the degree of comparability of the contractual ... Read more
Costa Rica vs Reca Química S.A., December 2017, Supreme Court, Case No 01586 - 2017

Costa Rica vs Reca Química S.A., December 2017, Supreme Court, Case No 01586 – 2017

Reca Química is active in industrial production of paints and synthetic resins. Its parent company is H.B. Fuller which is based in the United States. According to the “Transfer Pricing Policy” set by the parent company of the group and in place since 1992, a 10% margin on sales was applied to inventory transferred between affiliates. However, during the fiscal periods 2003 and 2004, the parent company changed the policy so that sales to related companies abroad were to be made with a profit margin of only 5%, while for local affiliates and independent parties, the margin would be 10%. The tax administration issued an assessment in which the margin of all the controlled transactions was set at 10% resulting in additional taxable income of ¢185,827,941.00. According to the tax administration the 5% margin was not even enough to cover the operating expenses for the transactions in question. In 2015 the Administrative Court of Appeal ruled in favor of Reca ... Read more
US vs Microsoft, May 2017, US District Court

US vs Microsoft, May 2017, US District Court

In an ongoing transfer pricing battle between Microsoft and the IRS related to Microsofts’ use of a IP subsidiary in Puerto Rico to shift income and reduce taxes, the District Court of Washington has now ordered Microsoft to provide a number of documents as requested by the IRS. US vs Microsoft May 2017 US District Court In a prior decision from November 2015 the District Court ruled, that the IRS’ use of an external representative was not in conflict with US regulations. Microsoft argued that the IRS’ use of an outside law firm, Quinn Emanuel Urquhart & Sullivan, to assist in the audit was an improper delegation of its authority to examine taxpayer books. The Court ruled that the government had a legitimate purpose in continuing to pursue the audit, and that the use of Quinn Emanuel was not a breach of IRS authority that would invalidate the summonses. “The court’s role in this matter is not to pass judgment ... Read more
US vs. Medtronic Inc. June 2016, US Tax Court

US vs. Medtronic Inc. June 2016, US Tax Court

The IRS argued that Medtronic Inc failed to accurately account for the value of trade secrets and other intangibles owned by Medtronic Inc and used by Medtronic’s Puerto Rico manufacturing subsidiary in 2005 and 2006 when determening the royalty payments from the subsidiary. In 2016 the United States Tax Court found in favor of Medtronic, sustaining the use of the CUT method to analyze royalty payments. The Court also found that adjustments to the CUT were required. These included additional adjustments not initially applied by Medtronic Inc for know-how, profit potential and scope of product. The decision from the United States Tax Court has been appealed by the IRS in 2017. US-Memo-2016-112-Medtronic-v.-Commissioner ... Read more
Costa Rica vs Reca Química, September 2015, Administrative Court, Case No 00147 - 2015 Case File 11-006793-1027-CA

Costa Rica vs Reca Química, September 2015, Administrative Court, Case No 00147 – 2015 Case File 11-006793-1027-CA

Reca Química is active in industrial production of paints and synthetic resins. Its parent company is H.B. Fuller which is based in the United States. According to the “Transfer Pricing Policy” set by the parent company and in place since 1992, a 10% margin on sales was applied to inventory transferred between affiliates. However, during the fiscal periods 2003 and 2004, the parent company changed the policy so that sales to related companies abroad were to be made with a profit margin of only 5%, while for local affiliates and independent parties, the margin would be 10%. The tax administration issued an assessment in which the margin of all the controlled transactions was set at 10% resulting in additional taxable income of ¢185,827,941.00. According to the tax administration the 5% margin was not even enough to cover the operating expenses for the transactions in question. Judgement of the Administrative Court The court ruled in favour of Reca Quimica due to ... Read more
Costa Rica vs Nestlé, October 2013, Court of Appeal, Case No Nº 01365 - 2013 Case File 09-002823-1027-CA

Costa Rica vs Nestlé, October 2013, Court of Appeal, Case No Nº 01365 – 2013 Case File 09-002823-1027-CA

Nestlé de Costa Rica S.A. had been issued a tax assessment in which the taxable income for FY 2005 and 2006 was adjusted with an additional amount of ¢60,609,096.00 and ¢75,663,084.00. According to the tax authorities, the sales made by Nestlé to its related companies located in Chile, Switzerland and Puerto Rico had a profit margin different from those made to third parties. The margin on the unrelated transactions was 88% whereas the margins on comparable related party transactions was only 7%. The adjustments was determined based on internal CUPs. Judgement of the Court The Court dismissed the appeal of Nestlé. Excerpts “This Chamber agrees with the Tribunal, in the sense that the expert witness Luna Ramírez, during her testimony, does not manage to disprove the system applied by the Tax Administration, since she rejects the method used, however, she also states that it is difficult to resort to any other method. What is clear from this testimony is that ... Read more
Canada vs. Avotus Corporation. November 2006

Canada vs. Avotus Corporation. November 2006

The Tax Court of Canada upheld the right of Avotus Corporation to deduct from its Canadian income losses incurred by its subsidiary in Puerto Rico. The Tax Court found that the Puerto Rican subsidiary was Avotus’s agent under a validly executed agency agreement, rejecting the CRA’s claim that the written agreement was unacceptable because the subsidiary’s conduct was inconsistent with that of an agent. Canada-Avotus-Corporation-v.-The-Queen ... Read more
US vs Eli Lilly & Co, October 1998, United States Court of Appeals

US vs Eli Lilly & Co, October 1998, United States Court of Appeals

In this case a pharmaceutical company in the US, Eli Lilly & Co, transferred valuable pharmaceutical patents and manufacturing know-how to its subsidiary in Puerto Rico. The IRS argued that the transaction should be disregarded (substance over form) and claimed that all of the income from the transferred intangibles should be allocated to the U.S. parent. The Judgment from the Tax Court: “Respondent’s argument, that petitioner, having originally developed the patents and know-how, is forever required to report the income from those intangibles, is without merit. Respondent ignores the fact that petitioner, as developer and owner of the intangible property, was free to and did transfer the property to the Puerto Ricanaffiliate in 1966.” The Court of Appeals altered the judgement from the Tax Court. According to the Court of Appeals, the parent company had received an arm’s length consideration for the transfer of intangibles in the form of stock in the subsidiary. Hence, the Court disallowed the allocation of ... Read more
US vs Perkin-Elmer Corp. & Subs., September 1993, United States Tax Court, Case No. T.C. Memo. 1993-414

US vs Perkin-Elmer Corp. & Subs., September 1993, United States Tax Court, Case No. T.C. Memo. 1993-414

During the years in issue, 1975 through 1981, the worldwide operations of Perkin-Elmer (P-E) and its subsidiaries were organized into five operating groups, each of which was responsible for the research, manufacturing, sales, and servicing of its products. The five product areas were analytical instruments, optical systems, computer systems, flame spray equipment and materials, and military avionics. P-E and PECC entered into a General Licensing Agreement dated as of October 1, 1970, by the terms of which P-E granted PECC an exclusive right to manufacture in Puerto Rico and a nonexclusive right to use and sell worldwide the instruments and accessories to be identified in specific licenses. P-E also agreed to furnish PECC with all design and manufacturing information, including any then still to be developed, associated with any licensed products. PECC agreed to pay royalties on the products based upon the “Net Sales Price”, defined as “the net amount billed and payable for *** [licensed products] excluding import duties, ... Read more