Tag: Return on assets or return on capital employed

§ 1.482-6(c)(3)(iii) Example

Application of Residual Profit Split. (i) XYZ is a U.S. corporation that develops, manufactures and markets a line of products for police use in the United States. XYZ’s research unit developed a bulletproof material for use in protective clothing and headgear (Nulon). XYZ obtains patent protection for the chemical formula for Nulon. Since its introduction in the U.S., Nulon has captured a substantial share of the U.S. market for bulletproof material. (ii) XYZ licensed its European subsidiary, XYZ-Europe, to manufacture and market Nulon in Europe. XYZ-Europe is a well- established company that manufactures and markets XYZ products in Europe. XYZ-Europe has a research unit that adapts XYZ products for the defense market, as well as a well-developed marketing network that employs brand names that it developed. (iii) XYZ-Europe’s research unit alters Nulon to adapt it to military specifications and develops a high-intensity marketing campaign directed at the defense industry in several European countries. Beginning with the 1995 taxable year, XYZ-Europe ... Read more

§ 1.482-5(e) Example 5.

Adjusting operating assets and operating profit for differences in accounts receivable. (i) USM is a U.S. company that manufactures parts for industrial equipment and sells them to its foreign parent corporation. For purposes of applying the comparable profits method, 15 uncontrolled manufacturers that are similar to USM have been identified. (ii) USM has a significantly lower level of accounts receivable than the uncontrolled manufacturers. Since the rate of return on capital employed is to be used as the profit level indicator, both operating assets and operating profits must be adjusted to account for this difference. Each uncontrolled comparable’s operating assets is reduced by the amount (relative to sales) by which they exceed USM’s accounts receivable. Each uncontrolled comparable’s operating profit is adjusted by deducting imputed interest income on the excess accounts receivable. This imputed interest income is calculated by multiplying the uncontrolled comparable’s excess accounts receivable by an interest rate appropriate for short-term debt ... Read more

§ 1.482-5(e) Example 4.

Transfer of intangible to offshore manufacturer. (i) DevCo is a U.S. developer, producer and marketer of widgets. DevCo develops a new “high tech widget” (htw) that is manufactured by its foreign subsidiary ManuCo located in Country H. ManuCo sells the htw to MarkCo (a U.S. subsidiary of DevCo) for distribution and marketing in the United States. The taxable year 1996 is under audit, and the district director examines whether the royalty rate of 5 percent paid by ManuCo to DevCo is an arm’s length consideration for the htw technology. (ii) Based on all the facts and circumstances, the district director determines that the comparable profits method will provide the most reliable measure of an arm’s length result. ManuCo is selected as the tested party because it engages in relatively routine manufacturing activities, while DevCo engages in a variety of complex activities using unique and valuable intangibles. Finally, because ManuCo engages in manufacturing activities, it is determined that the ratio of ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter II paragraph 2.92

The selection of the denominator should be consistent with the comparability (including functional) analysis of the controlled transaction, and in particular it should reflect the allocation of risks between the parties (provided said allocation of risks is arm’s length, see Section D.1.2.1 in Chapter I). For instance, capital-intensive activities such as certain manufacturing activities may involve significant investment risk, even in those cases where the operational risks (such as market risks or inventory risks) might be limited. Where a transactional net margin method is applied to such cases, the investment-related risks are reflected in the net profit indicator if the latter is a return on investment (e.g. return on assets or return on capital employed). Such indicator might need to be adjusted (or a different net profit indicator selected) depending on what party to the controlled transaction bears that risk, as well as on the degree of differences in risk that may be found in the taxpayer’s controlled transaction and ... Read more

TPG2017 Chapter II paragraph 2.92

The selection of the denominator should be consistent with the comparability (including functional) analysis of the controlled transaction, and in particular it should reflect the allocation of risks between the parties (provided said allocation of risks is arm’s length, see Section D.1.2.1 in Chapter I). For instance, capital-intensive activities such as certain manufacturing activities may involve significant investment risk, even in those cases where the operational risks (such as market risks or inventory risks) might be limited. Where a transactional net margin method is applied to such cases, the investment-related risks are reflected in the net profit indicator if the latter is a return on investment (e.g. return on assets or return on capital employed). Such indicator might need to be adjusted (or a different net profit indicator selected) depending on what party to the controlled transaction bears that risk, as well as on the degree of differences in risk that may be found in the taxpayer’s controlled transaction and ... Read more
France vs. SA Astra Fralib (SAS Unilever France holding), December 2011, CAA no 10VE02491

France vs. SA Astra Fralib (SAS Unilever France holding), December 2011, CAA no 10VE02491

Following an unfavorable decision form the Administrative Court, the Tax Authorities asked the Court of Appeal to: 1°) to annul judgment No. 0703258 of 29 April 2010 by which the Administrative Court of Cergy-Pontoise discharged SAS Unilever France holding of its corporate tax assessments of EUR 27,188 for the financial year ended 31 December 1996 and EUR 406,484 for the financial year ended 31 December 1997 on behalf of its subsidiary SA Astra Fralib, formerly SA Astra Calvé; 2°) to charge the company with the said taxes; Judgement of the Court of Appeal The Court upheld the decision of the Administrative Court and dismissed the appeal of the Tax authorities. Excerpts: “Considering that, in application of the principles applicable to transfer pricing defined by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the sales prices invoiced by Astra Calvé were determined according to the cost-plus method; that the Unilever group found that the cost price of a tonne of margarine, ... Read more