Tag: Statistical tools

§ 1.482-7(g)(2)(ix)(E) Adjustments.

Section 1.482-1(e)(3), applied as modified by this paragraph (g)(2)(ix), determines when the Commissioner may make an adjustment to a PCT Payment due to the taxpayer’s results being outside the arm’s length range. Adjustment will be to the median, as defined in § 1.482-1(e)(3). Thus, the Commissioner is not required to establish an arm’s length range prior to making an allocation under section 482 ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(2)(ix)(D)(3) More than one variable input parameter.

If there are two or more variable input parameters, then under the applicable method, the arm’s length range of PCT Payments is the interquartile range, as described in § 1.482-1(e)(2)(iii)(C), of the set of PCT Payment values calculated iteratively using every possible combination of permitted choices of values for the input parameters. For input parameters other than a variable input parameter, the only such permitted choice is the single most reliable value. For variable input parameters, such permitted choices include any value that is – (i) Based on one of the observations described in paragraph (g)(2)(ix)(C) of this section; and (ii) Within the interquartile range (as described in § 1.482-1(e)(2)(iii)(C)) of the set of all values so based ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(2)(ix)(D)(2) One variable input parameter.

If there is exactly one variable input parameter, then under the applicable method, the arm’s length range of PCT Payments is the interquartile range, as described in § 1.482-1(e)(2)(iii)(C), of the set of PCT Payment values calculated by selecting – (i) Iteratively, the value of the variable input parameter that is based on each observation as described in paragraph (g)(2)(ix)(C) of this section; and (ii) The single most reliable values for each other input parameter ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(2)(ix)(D) Determination of arm’s length PCT Payment.

For purposes of applying this paragraph (g)(2)(ix), each input parameter is assigned a single most reliable value, unless it is a variable input parameter as described in paragraph (g)(2)(ix)(C) of this section. The determination of the arm’s length payment depends on the number of variable input parameters ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(2)(ix)(C) Variable input parameters.

For some market-based input parameters (variable input parameters), the parameter’s value is most reliably determined by considering two or more observations of market data that have, or with adjustment can be brought to, a similar reliability and comparability, as described in § 1.482-1(e)(2)(ii) (for example, profit levels or stock betas of two or more companies). See paragraph (g)(2)(ix)(B) of this section ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(2)(ix)(B) Methods based on two or more input parameters.

An applicable method may determine PCT Payments based on calculations involving two or more parameters whose values depend on the facts and circumstances of the case (input parameters). For some input parameters (market-based input parameters), the value is most reliably determined by reference to data that derives from uncontrolled transactions (market data). For example, the value of the return to a controlled participant’s routine contributions, as such term is defined in paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section, to the CSA Activity (which value is used as an input parameter in the income method described in paragraph (g)(4) of this section) may in some cases be most reliably determined by reference to the profit level of a company with rights, resources, and capabilities comparable to those routine contributions. See § 1.482-5. As another example, the value for the discount rate that reflects the riskiness of a controlled participant’s role in the CSA (which value is used as an input parameter in the income method described in paragraph (g)(4) of ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(g)(2)(ix)(A) In general.

The guidance in § 1.482-1(e) regarding determination of an arm’s length range, as modified by this section, applies in evaluating the arm’s length amount charged in a PCT under a transfer pricing method provided in this section (applicable method). Section 1.482-1(e)(2)(i) provides that the arm’s length range is ordinarily determined by applying a single pricing method selected under the best method rule to two or more uncontrolled transactions of similar comparability and reliability although use of more than one method may be appropriate for the purposes described in § 1.482-1(c)(2)(iii). The rules provided in § 1.482-1(e) and this section for determining an arm’s length range shall not override the rules provided in paragraph (i)(6) of this section for periodic adjustments by the Commissioner. The provisions in paragraphs (g)(2)(ix)(C) and (D) of this section apply only to applicable methods that are based on two or more input parameters as described in paragraph (g)(2)(ix)(B) of this section. For an example of how the rules of this section for determining an ... Read more

§ 1.482-3(d)(4) Example 4.

(i) FS, a foreign corporation, produces apparel for USP, its U.S. parent corporation. FS purchases its materials from unrelated suppliers and produces the apparel according to designs provided by USP. The district director identifies 10 uncontrolled foreign apparel producers that operate in the same geographic market and are similar in many respect to FS. (ii) Relatively complete data is available regarding the functions performed and risks borne by the uncontrolled producers. In addition, data is sufficiently detailed to permit adjustments for differences in accounting practices. However, sufficient data is not available to determine whether it is likely that all material differences in contractual terms have been identified. For example, it is not possible to determine which parties in the uncontrolled transactions bear currency risks. Because differences in these contractual terms could materially affect price or profits, the inability to determine whether differences exist between the controlled and uncontrolled transactions will diminish the reliability of these results. Therefore, the reliability of ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(f)(2)(iv) Product lines and statistical techniques.

The methods described in §§ 1.482-2 through 1.482-6 are generally stated in terms of individual transactions. However, because a taxpayer may have controlled transactions involving many different products, or many separate transactions involving the same product, it may be impractical to analyze every individual transaction to determine its arm’s length price. In such cases, it is permissible to evaluate the arm’s length results by applying the appropriate methods to the overall results for product lines or other groupings. In addition, the arm’s length results of all related party transactions entered into by a controlled taxpayer may be evaluated by employing sampling and other valid statistical techniques ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(e)(5)Example 4.

Arm’s length range limited to interquartile range. (i) To evaluate the arm’s length result of controlled transactions between USP, a United States manufacturing company, and FSub, its foreign subsidiary, the district director considers applying the comparable profits method. The district director identifies 50 uncontrolled taxpayers within the same industry that potentially could be used to apply the method. (ii) Further review indicates that only 20 of the uncontrolled manufacturers engage in activities requiring similar capital investments and technical know-how. Data with respect to five of the uncontrolled manufacturers is very limited, and although some material differences can be identified and adjusted for, the level of comparability of these five uncontrolled comparables is significantly lower than that of the other 15. In addition, for those five uncontrolled comparables it is not possible to accurately allocate costs between the business activity associated with the relevant transactions and other business activities. Therefore, pursuant to § 1.482-1(e)(2)(ii) only the other fifteen uncontrolled comparables may ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(e)(5)Example 3.

Arm’s length range limited to interquartile range. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 2, except in this case there are some product and functional differences between the four uncontrolled comparables and USSub. However, the data is insufficiently complete to determine the effect of the differences. Applying the resale price method to the four uncontrolled comparables, and making adjustments to the uncontrolled comparables pursuant to § 1.482-1(d)(2), the district director derives the following results: Uncontrolled comparable Result (price) 1 $42.00 2 44.00 3 45.00 4 47.50 (ii) It cannot be established in this case that all material differences are likely to have been identified and reliable adjustments made for those differences. Accordingly, if the resale price method is determined to be the best method pursuant to § 1.482-1(c), the arm’s length range for the controlled transaction must be established pursuant to paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(B) of this section. In this case, the district director uses the interquartile range to determine the arm’s length range, ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(e)(5)Example 2.

Arm’s length range consists of all the results. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 1. Applying the resale price method to the four uncontrolled comparables, and making adjustments to the uncontrolled comparables pursuant to § 1.482-1(d)(2), the district director derives the following results: Comparable Result (price) 1 $44.00 2 45.00 3 45.00 4 45.50 (ii) The district director determines that data regarding the four uncontrolled transactions is sufficiently complete and accurate so that it is likely that all material differences between the controlled and uncontrolled transactions have been identified, such differences have a definite and reasonably ascertainable effect, and appropriate adjustments were made for such differences. Accordingly, if the resale price method is determined to be the best method pursuant to § 1.482-1(c), the arm’s length range for the controlled transaction will consist of the results of all of the uncontrolled comparables, pursuant to paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(A) of this section. Thus, the arm’s length range in this case would be the range ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(e)(5)Example 1.

Selection of comparables. (i) To evaluate the arm’s length result of a controlled transaction between USSub, the United States taxpayer under review, and FP, its foreign parent, the district director considers applying the resale price method. The district director identifies ten potential uncontrolled transactions. The distributors in all ten uncontrolled transactions purchase and resell similar products and perform similar functions to those of USSub. (ii) Data with respect to three of the uncontrolled transactions is very limited, and although some material differences can be identified and adjusted for, the level of comparability of these three uncontrolled comparables is significantly lower than that of the other seven. Further, of those seven, adjustments for the identified material differences can be reliably made for only four of the uncontrolled transactions. Therefore, pursuant to § 1.482-1(e)(2)(ii) only these four uncontrolled comparables may be used to establish an arm’s length range ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(e)(4) Arm’s length range not prerequisite to allocation.

The rules of this paragraph (e) do not require that the district director establish an arm’s length range prior to making an allocation under section 482. Thus, for example, the district director may properly propose an allocation on the basis of a single comparable uncontrolled price if the comparable uncontrolled price method, as described in § 1.482-3(b), has been properly applied. However, if the taxpayer subsequently demonstrates that the results claimed on its income tax return are within the range established by additional equally reliable comparable uncontrolled prices in a manner consistent with the requirements set forth in § 1.482-1(e)(2)(iii), then no allocation will be made ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(e)(3) Adjustment if taxpayer’s results are outside arm’s length range.

If the results of a controlled transaction fall outside the arm’s length range, the district director may make allocations that adjust the controlled taxpayer’s result to any point within the arm’s length range. If the interquartile range is used to determine the arm’s length range, such adjustment will ordinarily be to the median of all the results. The median is the 50th percentile of the results, which is determined in a manner analogous to that described in paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(C) of this section (Interquartile range). In other cases, an adjustment normally will be made to the arithmetic mean of all the results. See § 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii)(D) for determination of an adjustment when a controlled taxpayer’s result for a multiple year period falls outside an arm’s length range consisting of the average results of uncontrolled comparables over the same period ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(e)(2)(iii)(C) Interquartile range.

For purposes of this section, the interquartile range is the range from the 25th to the 75th percentile of the results derived from the uncontrolled comparables. For this purpose, the 25th percentile is the lowest result derived from an uncontrolled comparable such that at least 25 percent of the results are at or below the value of that result. However, if exactly 25 percent of the results are at or below a result, then the 25th percentile is equal to the average of that result and the next higher result derived from the uncontrolled comparables. The 75th percentile is determined analogously ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(e)(2)(iii)(B) Adjustment of range to increase reliability.

If there are no uncontrolled comparables described in paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(A) of this section, the arm’s length range is derived from the results of all the uncontrolled comparables, selected pursuant to paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, that achieve a similar level of comparability and reliability. In such cases the reliability of the analysis must be increased, where it is possible to do so, by adjusting the range through application of a valid statistical method to the results of all of the uncontrolled comparables so selected. The reliability of the analysis is increased when statistical methods are used to establish a range of results in which the limits of the range will be determined such that there is a 75 percent probability of a result falling above the lower end of the range and a 75 percent probability of a result falling below the upper end of the range. The interquartile range ordinarily provides an acceptable measure of this range; however a different statistical method may ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(e)(2)(iii)(A) In general.

The arm’s length range will consist of the results of all of the uncontrolled comparables that meet the following conditions: the information on the controlled transaction and the uncontrolled comparables is sufficiently complete that it is likely that all material differences have been identified, each such difference has a definite and reasonably ascertainable effect on price or profit, and an adjustment is made to eliminate the effect of each such difference ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(e)(2)(ii) Selection of comparables.

Uncontrolled comparables must be selected based upon the comparability criteria relevant to the method applied and must be sufficiently similar to the controlled transaction that they provide a reliable measure of an arm’s length result. If material differences exist between the controlled and uncontrolled transactions, adjustments must be made to the results of the uncontrolled transaction if the effect of such differences on price or profits can be ascertained with sufficient accuracy to improve the reliability of the results. See § 1.482-1(d)(2) (Standard of comparability). The arm’s length range will be derived only from those uncontrolled comparables that have, or through adjustments can be brought to, a similar level of comparability and reliability, and uncontrolled comparables that have a significantly lower level of comparability and reliability will not be used in establishing the arm’s length range ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(e)(2)(i) Single method.

The arm’s length range is ordinarily determined by applying a single pricing method selected under the best method rule to two or more uncontrolled transactions of similar comparability and reliability. Use of more than one method may be appropriate for the purposes described in paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section (Best method rule) ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(e)(1) In general.

In some cases, application of a pricing method will produce a single result that is the most reliable measure of an arm’s length result. In other cases, application of a method may produce a number of results from which a range of reliable results may be derived. A taxpayer will not be subject to adjustment if its results fall within such range (arm’s length range) ... Read more
India vs Amway India Enterprises Pvt. Ltd., September 2022, High Court of Delhi, Case No ITA 313/2022

India vs Amway India Enterprises Pvt. Ltd., September 2022, High Court of Delhi, Case No ITA 313/2022

Amway India is engaged in the business of direct selling of consumer products through multi-level marketing. For FY 2013-2014 Amway paid royalties to a foreign Amway group company. Following an audit, an assessment was issued by the tax authorities where the royalty had been reduced based on a benchmark study resulting in additional taxable income. An appeal was filed by Amway India with the Income Tax Tribunal where the assessment was set aside. An appeal was then filed by the tax authorities with the High Court. In the appeal the tax authorities stated that the Tribunal had failed to appreciate the fact that the royalty payments were excessive considering the Advertisement, Marketing and Promotion (‘AMP’) expenses incurred by Amway India for the benefit of the group’s trademark and brand. According to the tax authorities Amway India created marketing intangibles for the group and should be compensated with a payment from the group rather than having to pay huge royalties. Judgement ... Read more
Italy vs Promgas s.p.a., May 2022, Supreme Court, Cases No 15668/2022

Italy vs Promgas s.p.a., May 2022, Supreme Court, Cases No 15668/2022

Promgas s.p.a. is 50% owned by the Italian company Eni s.p.a. and 50% owned by the Russian company Gazprom Export. It deals with the purchase and sale of natural gas of Russian origin destined for the Italian market. It sells the gas to a single Italian entity not belonging to the group, Edison spa, on the basis of a contract signed on 24 January 2000. In essence, Promgas s.p.a. performes intermediary function between the Russian company, Gazprom Export (exporter of the gas), and the Italian company, Edison s.p.a. (final purchaser of the gas). Following an audit for FY 2005/06, the tax authorities – based on the Transaction Net Margin Method – held that the operating margin obtained by Promgas s.p.a. (0.23% in 2025 and 0.06% in 2006) were not in line with the results that the company could have achieved at arm’s length. Applying an operating margin of l.39% resulted in a arm’s length profit of €4,227,438.07, for the year ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter III paragraph 3.79

The use of multiple year data does not necessarily imply the use of multiple year averages. Multiple year data and averages can however be used in some circumstances to improve reliability of the range. See paragraphs 3.57-3.62 for a discussion of statistical tools ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter III paragraph 3.62

In determining this point, where the range comprises results of relatively equal and high reliability, it could be argued that any point in the range satisfies the arm’s length principle. Where comparability defects remain as discussed at paragraph 3.57, it may be appropriate to use measures of central tendency to determine this point (for instance the median, the mean or weighted averages, etc., depending on the specific characteristics of the data set), in order to minimise the risk of error due to unknown or unquantifiable remaining comparability defects ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter III paragraph 3.61

If the relevant condition of the controlled transaction (e.g. price or margin) falls outside the arm’s length range asserted by the tax administration, the taxpayer should have the opportunity to present arguments that the conditions of the controlled transaction satisfy the arm’s length principle, and that the result falls within the arm’s length range (i.e. that the arm’s length range is different from the one asserted by the tax administration). If the taxpayer is unable to establish this fact, the tax administration must determine the point within the arm’s length range to which it will adjust the condition of the controlled transaction ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter III paragraph 3.57

It may also be the case that, while every effort has been made to exclude points that have a lesser degree of comparability, what is arrived at is a range of figures for which it is considered, given the process used for selecting comparables and limitations in information available on comparables, that some comparability defects remain that cannot be identified and/or quantified, and are therefore not adjusted. In such cases, if the range includes a sizeable number of observations, statistical tools that take account of central tendency to narrow the range (e.g. the interquartile range or other percentiles) might help to enhance the reliability of the analysis ... Read more
Spain vs Varian Medical Systems Iberica S.L., October 2021, Audiencia Nacional, Case No SAN 4241/2021 - ECLI:ES:AN:2021:4241

Spain vs Varian Medical Systems Iberica S.L., October 2021, Audiencia Nacional, Case No SAN 4241/2021 – ECLI:ES:AN:2021:4241

Varian Medical Systems Iberica S.L. is the Spanish subsidiary of the multinational company Varian Medical Systems and carries out two types of activities – distribution and after-sales services. The products sold was purchased from related entities: Varian Medical Systems Inc., Varian Medical Systems UK Ltd., Varian Medical Systems International AG and Varian Medical Systems HAAN GmbH. The remuneration of Varian Medical Systems Iberica S.L. had been determined by application of the net margin method for all transactions and resulted in a operating margin of 2.86% in 2005 and 2.75% in 2006. In 2010 an audit were performed by the tax authorities for FY 2005 and 2006, which resulted in an adjustment. The tax authorities accepted the net margin method, but made various corrections in its application. The adjustments made by the tax authorities resulted in a operating margin of 6.45% in the two years under review, The tax administration argued that the margins determined by Varian Medical Systems Iberica S.L ... Read more
Greece vs Cypriot company Ltd., September 2021, Tax Court, Case No 2940/2021

Greece vs Cypriot company Ltd., September 2021, Tax Court, Case No 2940/2021

This case deals with arm’s length pricing of various inter-company loans which had been granted – free of interest – by Cypriot company Ltd. to an affiliate group company. Following an audit of Cypriot company Ltd, an upwards adjustment of the taxable income was issued. The adjustment was based on a comparison of the terms of the controlled transaction and the terms prevailing in transactions between independent parties. The lack of interest on the funds provided (deposit of a remittance minus acceptance of a remittance) was not considered in accordance with the arm’s length principle. Cypriot company Ltd disagreed with the assessment and filed an appeal with the tax court. Judgement of the Tax Court The Tax Court dismissed the appeal of Cypriot company Ltd. in regards of the arm’s length pricing of the loans. Excerpt “It is evident from the above that the bond loan taken is related to the outstanding balance of the debt as at 31/12/2014 and ... Read more
Spain vs XZ SA, May 2021, TEAC, Case No Rec. 2545/2019

Spain vs XZ SA, May 2021, TEAC, Case No Rec. 2545/2019

Following an audit the tax administration had adjusted the margin obtained by the taxpayer to the median, as it was below the interquartile range of the benchmark analysis. An appeal was filed by the taxpayer with the TEAC. Judgement of the TEAC The TEAC upheld the taxpayer’s appeal and annulled the decision of the tax authorities. Excerpt “… In the present case, the inspectorate has accepted the comparability study of the company without noting any shortcomings in the study. It only notes, perhaps as a justification for the unreliability of the company’s information, that: It should be clear, therefore, that, according to the background information in the file, at no time has group X commissioned or agreed to have its costs and other elements determining the group’s internal data, including its own costs, verified by an independent third party, prior to their provision to the entity responsible (…) for preparing the documentation on related-party transactions, provided in the course of ... Read more
Portugal vs "A-Contract Manufacturer LDA", December 2020, CAAD Tax Arbitration, Case No 808/2019-T

Portugal vs “A-Contract Manufacturer LDA”, December 2020, CAAD Tax Arbitration, Case No 808/2019-T

A-Contract Manufacturer LDA is an entity residing in Portugal, whose main activity is contract manufacturing of coffee machines and irons, as well as spare parts, tools etc. on behalf of its German parent B A.G. Following an audit, the tax authorities found that the results of A-Contract Manufacturer LDA had not been at arm’s length. An assessment of additional income was issued where the adjustment had been determined based on a benchmark study and use of statistical tools – interquartile range and median. Not satisfied with the assessment A-Contract Manufacturer LDA brought the case to the CAAD, a Portuguese arbitration tribunal. Decision of CAAD The CAAD decided in favour of the tax authorities and upheld the assessment. Excerpt “In sum, regarding the first claim of the Claimant that the arm’s length principle was violated, it appears that the Defendant did nothing more than, in compliance with the duty imposed by art. In short, as to the first claim of violation ... Read more
Hungary vs "Auto Parts Ktf", May 2020, Supreme Court (Kúria), Case No. Kfv.I. 35,618 / 2019/11

Hungary vs “Auto Parts Ktf”, May 2020, Supreme Court (Kúria), Case No. Kfv.I. 35,618 / 2019/11

Auto Parts Ktf’s principal activity is the manufacture and sale of passenger cars and spare parts. Between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014, it sold its products to its affiliated undertakings and to unrelated parties. Auto Parts Ktf had prepared transfer pricing documentation, in which it determined the arm’s length price using the transaction net margin method (TNMM). Auto Parts Ktf identified 9 comparable companies for 2013 based on a benchmark using the Amadeus database version of 17 April 2014, and based on the financial documents of these companies for 2010-2012, it defined the interquartile range of the normal price range as the market price range between 2.13% and 9.78%. For 2014, it did not update its benchmark, but fixed the minimum-maximum range as in 2013 and considered this as the market price range. For both years, the applicant examined the total operating profit of the manufacturing activity on a consolidated basis, which showed a profit of 2,22 % ... Read more
Hungary vs "APA Ktf", October 2019, Court of Appeals, Case No. Kfv.I.35.504/2018/6

Hungary vs “APA Ktf”, October 2019, Court of Appeals, Case No. Kfv.I.35.504/2018/6

The tax authority had set the price range for “APA Ktf’s” request for an advance pricing arrangement (APA) at 12.50 to 22.50 basis points. According to the tax authorities, it follows from points 3.61 and 3.62 of the Guidelines that it is only appropriate to adjust the arm’s length price for such transactions to a level close to the mid-point of the range if there is a comparability gap. In the present case, however, it had not been established that there are any shortcomings in comparability, so the first turn of paragraph 3.62 applies: any point in the range, including the mid-point, is in accordance with the arm’s length principle. Judgement of the Court of Appeal. The Court of Appeal pointed out that the applicant had applied for the determination of the normal market price under Article 132/B of the Art. “[37]Defendant [tax authorities] argued in its application for review that, under paragraphs 3.61 and 3.62 of the Guidelines, it ... Read more
Hungary vs "Auto Parts Ktf", May 2019, Administrative Court, Case No. 1.K.27.084 / 2019

Hungary vs “Auto Parts Ktf”, May 2019, Administrative Court, Case No. 1.K.27.084 / 2019

Auto Parts Ktf’s principal activity is the manufacture and sale of passenger cars and spare parts. Between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014, it sold its products to its affiliated undertakings and to unrelated parties. Auto Parts Ktf had prepared transfer pricing documentation, in which it determined the arm’s length price using the transaction net margin method (TNMM). Auto Parts Ktf identified 9 comparable companies for 2013 based on a benchmark using the Amadeus database version of 17 April 2014, and based on the financial documents of these companies for 2010-2012, it defined the interquartile range of the normal price range as the market price range between 2.13% and 9.78%. For 2014, it did not update its benchmark, but fixed the minimum-maximum range as in 2013 and considered this as the market price range. For both years, the applicant examined the total operating profit of the manufacturing activity on a consolidated basis, which showed a profit of 2,22 % ... Read more

TPG2017 Chapter III paragraph 3.79

The use of multiple year data does not necessarily imply the use of multiple year averages. Multiple year data and averages can however be used in some circumstances to improve reliability of the range. See paragraphs 3.57-3.62 for a discussion of statistical tools ... Read more

TPG2017 Chapter III paragraph 3.57

It may also be the case that, while every effort has been made to exclude points that have a lesser degree of comparability, what is arrived at is a range of figures for which it is considered, given the process used for selecting comparables and limitations in information available on comparables, that some comparability defects remain that cannot be identified and/or quantified, and are therefore not adjusted. In such cases, if the range includes a sizeable number of observations, statistical tools that take account of central tendency to narrow the range (e.g. the interquartile range or other percentiles) might help to enhance the reliability of the analysis ... Read more
Portugal vs "Cork Portugal SA", May 2016, Collective Arbitration Tribunal, Case No 609/2015-T

Portugal vs “Cork Portugal SA”, May 2016, Collective Arbitration Tribunal, Case No 609/2015-T

“Cork Portugal SA” is engaged in the production and marketing of natural wine corks and is part of a Multinational group operating in the sector of closures for the wine industry. The Portuguese tax administration issued an adjustment of EUR 337,493.97 to the taxable income for 2010 on the basis that, its sales of cork to a related company in the US – via an Irish trading company B within the group – had not been at arm’s length. Portuguese provisions of Article 63(1) of the CIRC, provides “In commercial transactions […] carried out between a taxable person and any other entity, whether or not subject to IRC, with which he is in a situation of special relations, terms or conditions substantially identical to those that would normally be contracted, accepted and practised between independent entities in comparable transactions must be contracted, accepted and practised”. The adjustment was based on a benchmark study provided by the company. Net cost plus ... Read more