Tag: Trade receivable

§ 1.482-2(a)(1)(iv)(B)

Notwithstanding the first-in, first-out payment application rule described in paragraph (a)(1)(iv)(A) of this section, the taxpayer may apply payments or credits against amounts owed in some other order on its books in accordance with an agreement or understanding of the related parties if the taxpayer can demonstrate that either it or others in its industry, as a regular trade practice, enter into such agreements or understandings in the case of similar balances with unrelated parties ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(1)(iv)(A) Example.

(i) Facts. X and Y are members of a group of controlled entities within the meaning of section 482. Assume that the balance of intercompany trade receivables owed by X to Y on June 1 is $100, and that all of the $100 balance represents amounts incurred by X to Y during the month of May. During the month of June X incurs an additional $200 of intercompany trade receivables to Y. Assume that on July 15, $60 is properly credited against X’s intercompany account to Y, and that $240 is properly credited against the intercompany account on August 31. Assume that under paragraph (a)(1)(iii)(B) of this section interest must be charged on X’s intercompany trade receivables to Y beginning with the first day of the third calendar month following the month the intercompany trade receivables arise, and that no alternative interest-free period applies. Thus, the interest-free period for intercompany trade receivables incurred during the month of May ends on July 31, and the ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(1)(iv)(A)

Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (a)(1)(iv), in determining the period of time for which an amount owed by one member of the group to another member is outstanding, payments or other credits to an account are considered to be applied against the earliest amount outstanding, that is, payments or credits are applied against amounts in a first-in, first-out (FIFO) order. Thus, tracing payments to individual intercompany trade receivables is generally not required in order to determine whether a particular intercompany trade receivable has been paid within the applicable interest-free period determined under paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section. The application of this paragraph (a)(1)(iv)(A) may be illustrated by the following example: ... Read more
§ 1.482-2(a)(1)(iii)(E)(4) Example.

§ 1.482-2(a)(1)(iii)(E)(4) Example.

(i)Facts. X and Y use the calendar year as the taxable year and are members of the same group of controlled entities within the meaning of section 482. For Y’s 1988 calendar taxable year X and Y intend to use the interest-free period determined under this paragraph (a)(1)(iii)(E) for intercompany trade receivables attributable to X’s purchases of certain products from Y for resale by X in the ordinary course of business to unrelated persons in country Z. For its 1987 calendar taxable year all of X’s sales in country Z were of products within a single product group based upon a three-digit SIC code, were not manufactured, produced, or constructed (within the meaning of § 1.954-3(a)(4)) by X, and were sold in the ordinary course of X’s trade or business to unrelated persons located only in country Z. These sales and the month-end accounts receivable balances (for such sales and for such sales uncollected from prior months) are as follows: Month Sales Accounts receivable ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(1)(iii)(E)(3) Average collection period.

An average collection period for purposes of this paragraph (a)(1)(iii)(E) is determined as follows – (i) Step 1. Determine total sales (less returns and allowances) by the related purchaser in the product group to unrelated persons located in the same foreign country during the related purchaser’s last taxable year ending on or before the first day of the related seller’s taxable year in which the intercompany trade receivable arises. (ii) Step 2. Determine the related purchaser’s average month-end accounts receivable balance with respect to sales described in paragraph (a)(1)(iii)(E)(2)(i) of this section for the related purchaser’s last taxable year ending on or before the first day of the related seller’s taxable year in which the intercompany trade receivable arises. (iii) Step 3. Compute a receivables turnover rate by dividing the total sales amount described in paragraph (a)(1)(iii)(E)(2)(i) of this section by the average receivables balance described in paragraph (a)(1)(iii)(E)(2)(ii) of this section. (iv) Step 4. Divide the receivables turnover rate determined under paragraph (a)(1)(iii)(E)(2)(iii) of this section into 365, and round the result to the nearest whole number ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(1)(iii)(E)(2) Interest-free period.

The interest-free period under this paragraph (a)(1)(iii)(E), however, shall in no event exceed 183 days. The related purchaser does not have to conduct business outside the United States in order to be eligible to use the interest-free period of this paragraph (a)(1)(iii)(E). The interest-free period under this paragraph (a)(1)(iii)(E) shall not apply to intercompany trade receivables attributable to property which is manufactured, produced, or constructed (within the meaning of § 1.954-3(a)(4)) by the related purchaser. For purposes of this paragraph (a)(1)(iii)(E) a product group includes all products within the same three-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Code (as prepared by the Statistical Policy Division of the Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President.) ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(1)(iii)(E)(1) General rule.

If in the ordinary course of business one member of the group (related purchaser) purchases property from another member of the group (related seller) for resale to unrelated persons located in a particular foreign country, the related purchaser and the related seller may use as the interest-free period for the intercompany trade receivables arising during the related seller’s taxable year from the purchase of such property within the same product group an interest-free period equal the sum of – (i) The number of days in the related purchaser’s average collection period (as determined under paragraph (a)(1)(iii)(E)(2) of this section) for sales of property within the same product group sold in the ordinary course of business to unrelated persons located in the same foreign country; plus (ii) Ten (10) calendar days ... Read more

§ 1.482-2(a)(1)(iii)(D) Exception for regular trade practice of creditor member or others in creditor’s industry.

If the creditor member or unrelated persons in the creditor member’s industry, as a regular trade practice, allow unrelated parties a longer period without charging interest than that described in paragraph (a)(1)(iii)(B) or (C) of this section (whichever is applicable) with respect to transactions which are similar to transactions that give rise to intercompany trade receivables, such longer interest-free period shall be allowed with respect to a comparable amount of intercompany trade receivables ... Read more
Austria vs "Lamps AG", June 2022, Bundesfinanzgericht, Case No RV/7102082/2021

Austria vs “Lamps AG”, June 2022, Bundesfinanzgericht, Case No RV/7102082/2021

“Lamps AG” had various transactions with related parties. These included outstanding trade receivables from a sister company for which no interest was charged, product transactions for which the price had been adjusted, and guarantee commissions paid to the parent company in connection with a shareholder loan. Following an audit, the tax authorities issued a notice of additional taxable income for the years 2002 to 2004. According to the tax authorities, the above transactions had not been priced at arm’s length and resulted in hidden distribution of profits. “Lamps AG” filed an appeal with the Tax Court. Judgment of the court. The Tax Court overturned the assessment with respect to the product pricing and the guarantee commission, but upheld the assessment with respect to the lack of interest on the outstanding trade receivables. The court concluded that the failure to pay interest was a consequence of the parties being under common control. Click here for English translation Click here for other ... Read more
Germany vs "Waiver KG", February 2019, Bundesfinanzhof, Case No I R 51/17

Germany vs “Waiver KG”, February 2019, Bundesfinanzhof, Case No I R 51/17

Waiver KG had an outstanding (non-interest-bearing and unsecured) trade receivable of EUR 2,560,000 from a wholly-owned subsidiary in China related to deliveries made in FY 2004 and 2005. Waiver KG had first issued a partial waiver (EUR 560,000) on the receivable and then a complete waiver in December 2008, after a partial write-down had previously been made in the commercial balance sheet. The initial partial write-down had not been given effect to the taxable income, but in the course of a tax audit Waiver AG requested that the partial write-off be taken into account for tax purposes as well. The tax office refused to do so and instead applied an interest rate of 3% on the outstanding receivable. A complaint was then filed by Waiver KG to the tax court. The tax court issued a decision in favour of Waiver KG with reference to German jurisprudence on the blocking effect of Art. 9 OECD-MA. However, at the same time, the tax ... Read more