Tag: Transfer pricing methods

§ 1.482-3(a) In general.

The arm’s length amount charged in a controlled transfer of tangible property must be determined under one of the six methods listed in this paragraph (a). Each of the methods must be applied in accordance with all of the provisions of § 1.482-1, including the best method rule of § 1.482-1(c), the comparability analysis of § 1.482-1(d), and the arm’s length range of § 1.482-1(e). The methods are – (1) The comparable uncontrolled price method, described in paragraph (b) of this section; (2) The resale price method, described in paragraph (c) of this section; (3) The cost plus method, described in paragraph (d) of this section; (4) The comparable profits method, described in § 1.482-5; (5) The profit split method, described in § 1.482-6; and (6) Unspecified methods, described in paragraph (e) of this section ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(b)(2)(ii) Selection of category of method applicable to transaction.

The methods listed in § 1.482-2 apply to different types of transactions, such as transfers of property, services, loans or advances, and rentals. Accordingly, the method or methods most appropriate to the calculation of arm’s length results for controlled transactions must be selected, and different methods may be applied to interrelated transactions if such transactions are most reliably evaluated on a separate basis. For example, if services are provided in connection with the transfer of property, it may be appropriate to separately apply the methods applicable to services and property in order to determine an arm’s length result. But see § 1.482-1(f)(2)(i) (Aggregation of transactions). In addition, other applicable provisions of the Code may affect the characterization of a transaction, and therefore affect the methods applicable under section 482. See for example section 467 ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(b)(2)(i) Methods.

Sections 1.482-2 through 1.482-7 and 1.482-9 provide specific methods to be used to evaluate whether transactions between or among members of the controlled group satisfy the arm’s length standard, and if they do not, to determine the arm’s length result. This section provides general principles applicable in determining arm’s length results of such controlled transactions, but do not provide methods, for which reference must be made to those other sections in accordance with paragraphs (b)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section. Section 1.482-7 provides the specific methods to be used to evaluate whether a cost sharing arrangement as defined in § 1.482-7 produces results consistent with an arm’s length result ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter III Annex paragraph 1 – 8

Example of a Working Capital Adjustment See Chapter III, Section A.6 of these Guidelines for general guidance on comparability adjustments. The assumptions about arm’s length arrangements in the following examples are intended for illustrative purposes only and should not be taken as prescribing adjustments and arm’s length arrangements in actual cases of particular industries. While they seek to demonstrate the principles of the sections of the Guidelines to which they refer, those principles must be applied in each case according to the specific facts and circumstances of that case. This example is provided for illustration purposes as it represents one way, but not necessarily the only way, in which such an adjustment can be calculated. Furthermore, the comments below relate to the application of a transactional net margin method in the situations where, given the facts and circumstances of the case and in particular the comparability (including functional) analysis of the transaction and the review of the information available on ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 16

85. Company A, Company B and Company C, members of the same MNE group, jointly agree to share the “greenfield” development of a new product. In this regard, none of the entities brings existing contributions of value such as pre-existing intangibles to the project. Each associated enterprise will be responsible for developing and manufacturing one of the three key components of the product. 86. In this case, assume that the transactional profit split is found to be the most appropriate method for determining the profits of the three companies from the sale of the new product. The functional analysis concludes that the relative contributions of the parties may be measured by reference to the relative expenses incurred by each company in the development of the components as there is a direct correlation between these relative expenses and the relative value contributed by each company. Accordingly, the relevant profits (losses) in relation to the sales of the new product can be ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 15

80. Company A, resident in Country A, and Company B, resident in Country B, are members of an MNE group. Both companies undertake the design and manufacturing of products and their activities in this regard are highly integrated. Additionally, Company A and Company B are responsible for the marketing and distribution of the products to unrelated customers in Country A and in Country B, respectively. 81. Company A and Company B enter into an agreement to buy and sell pieces, moulds and different components to manufacture various different models of products. These transactions may also relate to semi-finished products to effectively meet customers’ demands in a timely fashion. As a result of their broad experience in the sector, Company A and Company B have each developed unique and valuable know-how and other intangibles in their respective design and manufacturing processes. 82. The functional analysis shows the economically significant risks are the strategic and operational risks in relation to the design ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 14

74. Below are some illustrations of the effect of choosing a measure of profits to determine the relevant profits to be split when applying a transactional profit split Scenario 1 74. Assume A and B are two associated enterprises situated in two different tax jurisdictions. Both manufacture the same widgets and incur expenditure that results in the creation of a unique and valuable intangible which they can mutually use. For the purpose of this example, it is assumed that the nature of this particular unique and valuable intangible is such that the value of A and B’s respective unique and valuable contributions in the year in question is proportional to A and B’s relative expenditure on the intangible in that year. (It should be noted that this assumption will not always be true in ) Assume A and B exclusively sell products to third parties. Assume that it is determined that the most appropriate method to be used is a ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 13

65. Company A, resident in Country A, is the parent company of Retail Group, an MNE group engaged in the retail fashion industry. Over the years, Company A has developed know-how and has enhanced the value of the trademark and associated goodwill of its business through intensive marketing activities. In this case, the intangibles developed and owned by Company A do not qualify as hard-to-value intangibles. 66. To expand the business into the Country B market, Company A enters into an agreement with Company B, a member of Retail Group resident in Country B. Under this agreement, Company A grants to Company B the rights to utilise the know-how and to use the trademarks for the purpose of fashion retailing in Country B. Company B has extensive experience in retail fashion distribution and has a strong track record in building brand recognition and loyalty in Country B through its in-house team which develops and implements innovative marketing strategies and activities ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 12

59. Company A, resident in Country A, Company B, resident in Country B, and Company C, resident in Country C, are members of an MNE group. Companies A and B undertake the design and manufacturing of products and their activities in this regard are highly integrated. Additionally, Company A and Company B are responsible for the marketing and distribution of the products to unrelated customers in Country A and in Country B, respectively. Company C is responsible for the benchmarkable marketing and distribution of products purchased from Company A and Company B to unrelated customers in Country C. 60. Company A and Company B enter into an agreement to buy and sell pieces, moulds and components to manufacture the different models of the products. These transactions may also relate to semi-finished products to effectively meet customers’ demands in a timely fashion. As a result of their broad experience in the sector, Company A and Company B have each developed unique ... Read more
TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 11

TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 11

51.  The success of an electronics product is linked to the innovative technological design both of its electronic processes and of its major component. That component is designed and manufactured by associated company A; is transferred to associated company B which designs and manufactures the rest of the product; and is distributed by associated company C. Information exists to verify by means of a resale price method that the distribution functions, assets and risks of Company C are being appropriately rewarded by the transfer price of the finished product sold from B to C. 52.  The most appropriate method to price the component transferred from A to B may be a CUP, if a sufficiently similar comparable could be found. See paragraph 2.15 of the Guidelines. However, since the component transferred from A to B reflects the innovative technological advance enjoyed by company A in this market, which is found to be a unique and valuable contribution by company A, in this ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 10

46. Company A designs, develops and produces a line of high technology industrial products. A new generation of the product line incorporates a key component developed and created by Company B, an associated enterprise of Company A. This key component is highly innovative, incorporating unique and valuable intangibles. This innovation represents the key point of difference in the new generation of products. The success of the new generation of products is heavily dependent upon the performance of the key component made by Company B. The key component is specifically tailored for the new generation of products and cannot be used in any other products. 47. The key component was developed entirely by Company B. The accurate delineation of the transaction determines that Company B performs all the control functions and assumed all the risks in relation to the development of the component, with no involvement by Company A. 48. The accurate delineation of the transaction also finds that Company A ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 9

42. ACo, resident in Country A, and BCo, resident in Country B, are members of AB Inc, an MNE Group. ACo owns worldwide patents on Compound A and BCo owns worldwide patents on Enzyme B. Compound A and Enzyme B are both unique. ACo and BCo have each developed their respective compound or enzyme by their own efforts, for different purposes, but each found that they were not able to be used as they had originally intended. As a result, neither Compound A nor Enzyme B has significant value at this time. 43. However, engineers from ACo and BCo working together subsequently determine that the combination of Compound A and Enzyme B creates a unique and valuable drug which is very effective in treating a specific disease and is likely to be highly valuable. 44. ACo and BCo enter into a contract according to which ACo grants BCo the right to use Compound A. BCo will combine both components to ... Read more
TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 8

TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 8

38. Company A is the parent company of M Group, an MNE group engaged in the manufacturing and distribution of electronic devices. Company A has the exclusive right to sell the devices in all territories. 39. Company A decides to subcontract the manufacturing of the electronic devices to Company B, another member of M Group. Under the terms of the contract, Company B will follow the directions of Company A to produce the devices. Company B will source and supply the materials necessary to produce the different parts of the final products. A key component in the manufacturing process is sourced from Company A. Company B sells the finished goods to Company A, which in turn will market and distribute the product to unrelated customers. 40. To perform the manufacturing activities, Company B has invested in machinery and tooling that is specifically adapted to the production of the electronic devices sold by M Group. Company B has no other customer ... Read more
TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 7

TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 7

34. Company L, a resident of Country L, and Company M, a resident of Country M, are part of an MNE group, LM Corporation. Companies L and M offer international trade facilitation, freight forwarding and customs broking services to unrelated customers. Together, Companies L and M, provide customers with services including receipt of goods in the exporting country, customs clearance in the exporting country, containerisation, organising shipment of the container, delivery of containers to and from the ship, de-containerisation, customs clearance in the importing country, and delivering the goods to their destination. Customers may be importers or exporters and Companies L and M facilitate imports and exports from both countries. Customers typically pay for these services based on a combination of the volume and weight of the goods. 35. The accurate delineation of the transaction determines that Companies L and M perform the same trade facilitation, freight forwarding and customs broking services jointly in a highly integrated manner. Companies L ... Read more
TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 6

TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 6

26. ASSET Co is the parent company of an MNE group that provides asset management services to unrelated parties. It has two subsidiaries, Company A in Country A and Company B, in Country B. 27. FUND Co is an independent asset management company that offers collective investment vehicles to retail investors in Country A and Country B. The investment vehicles commercialised by FUND Co are mirror funds that contain equity holdings from both Country A and Country B. 28. FUND Co hires ASSET Co to provide portfolio management services for the funds. FUND Co pays ASSET Co a fee based on the combined assets under management of the funds sold to retail investors in Country A and Country B. 29. ASSET Co enters into a contract with Company A and Company B such that both companies will provide the portfolio management services. Company A employs portfolio managers who specialise in Country A equity and Company B employs portfolio managers who ... Read more
TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 5

TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 5

20. WebCo is a member of an MNE group that develops IT solutions for business customers. Recently, WebCo designed the architecture of a web crawler to collect pricing data from internet sites. WebCo has written the code of the program so it is able to systematically scan web pages in a more efficient and faster way than any other similar search engines available in the market. 21. At this stage, WebCo licenses the program to ScaleCo, a company in the same MNE group. ScaleCo is responsible for scaling-up the web crawler and for deciding the crawling strategy. ScaleCo is a specialist in designing add-ons for the web crawler and in customising the product to address gaps in the market. Without these contributions, the system would not be able to meet potential customers’ needs. 22. Under the terms of the licence, WebCo will continue developing the underlying base technology and ScaleCo will use these developments to scale up the web crawler ... Read more
TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 4

TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 4

16. The facts in this example are the same as in Example 3, except that the marketing activities performed by Company B are more limited and do not significantly enhance the goodwill or reputation associated with the trademark. Company B has a mechanism whereby customer feedback on the products it sells is relayed to Company A, but this is a relatively simple process, and does not constitute a unique and valuable contribution. In sum, its distribution activities are not a particular source of competitive advantage in its industry. In particular, the potential success of the new line of products is largely dependent on its technical specifications, its design, and the price at which the products are sold to final customers. 17. The functional analysis concludes that Company A assumes the risks associated with the design, development and manufacturing of the product and Company B assumes the risks relating to marketing and distribution. 18. Marketing and distribution risks assumed by Company ... Read more
TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 3

TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 3

10. Company A and Company B are members of an MNE group that sells electronic appliances. For the launch of a new line of products, Company A will be responsible for its design, development and manufacturing whereas Company B will undertake the marketing functions and the global distribution of the goods. 11. In particular, Company A performs the research and development functions and decides on the lines of research and the timelines. For the manufacturing of the new line of products, Company A decides on the levels of production and performs the quality controls. In doing so, Company A uses its valuable know-how and expertise regarding the manufacturing of electronic appliances. 12. Once the products are manufactured, they are sold to Company B, which develops and executes cutting-edge global marketing activities relating to the new line of products. In particular, Company B is responsible for designing the marketing strategy, deciding on the level of marketing expenditure in each country where ... Read more
TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 2

TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 2

5. A Co, a member of T Group, is a company incorporated in Country A whose principal activity is the growing and processing of tea. A Co identifies, acquires and cultivates land with extremely good soil for growing tea. A Co has developed extensive know- how in respect of tea-growing, including maximising the desirable qualities of the tea it grows through its cultivation methods. The properties of the soil together with the cultivation methods give A Co’s tea a highly sought after flavour. 6. A Co processes tea by undertaking the following activities: sorting leaf, grading, full or partial fermenting, and blending and packaging for export as per customer order specifications. Blending entails using extensive proprietary know-how to mix the various teas in order to get blends with the unique tastes appreciated by customers of T Group. Tea produced by A Co has won international acclaim for its unique taste and aroma. 7. A Co sells its tea to B ... Read more
TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 1

TPG2022 Chapter II Annex II example 1

1. Company A is the parent company of an MNE group in the pharmaceutical sector. Company A owns a patent for a new pharmaceutical formulation. Company A designed the clinical trials and performed the research and development functions during the early stages of the development of the product, leading to the granting of the patent. 2. Company A enters into a contract with Company S, a subsidiary of Company A, according to which Company A licenses the patent rights relating to the potential pharmaceutical product to Company S. In accordance with the contract, Company S conducts the subsequent development of the product and performs important enhancement functions. Company S obtains the authorisation from the relevant regulatory body. The development of the product is successful and it is sold in various markets around the world. 3. The accurate delineation of the transaction indicates that the contributions made by both Company A and Company S are unique and valuable to the development ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.152

Where limited rights in fully developed intangibles are transferred in a licence or similar transaction, and reliable comparable uncontrolled transactions cannot be identified, a transactional profit split method can often be utilised to evaluate the respective contributions of the parties to earning the relevant income. The profit contribution of the rights in intangibles made available by the licensor or other transferor would, in such a circumstance, be one of the factors contributing to the earning of income following the transfer. However, other factors would also need to be considered. In particular, functions performed and risks assumed by the licensee/ transferee should specifically be taken into account in such an analysis. Other intangibles used by the licensor/transferor and by the licensee/transferee in their respective businesses should similarly be considered, as well as other relevant factors. Careful attention should be given in such an analysis to the limitations imposed by the terms of the transfer on the use of the intangibles by ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.151

Caution should be exercised in applying profit split approaches to determine estimates of the contributions of the parties to the creation of income in years following the transfer, or an arm’s length allocation of future income, with respect to partially developed intangibles. The contribution or value of work undertaken prior to the transfer may bear no relationship to the cost of that work. For example, a chemical compound with potentially blockbuster pharmaceutical indications might be developed in the laboratory at relatively little cost. In addition, a variety of difficult to evaluate factors would need to be taken into account in such a profit split analysis. These would include the relative riskiness and value of research contributions before and after the transfer, the relative risk and its effect on value, for other development activities carried out before and after the transfer, the appropriate amortisation rate for various contributions to the intangible value, assumptions regarding the time at which any potential new ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.150

It is also sometimes suggested that a profit split analysis can be applied to transfers of partially developed intangibles. In such an analysis, the relative value of contributions to the development of intangibles before and after a transfer of the intangibles in question is sometimes examined. Such an approach may include an attempt to amortise the transferor’s contribution to the partially developed intangible over the asserted useful life of that contribution, assuming no further development. Such approaches are generally based on projections of cash flows and benefits expected to arise at some future date following the transfer and the assumed successful completion of further development activities ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.149

Transactional profit split methods may have application in connection with the sale of full rights in intangibles. As with other applications of the transactional profit split method, a full functional analysis that considers the functions performed, risks assumed and assets used by each of the parties is an essential element of the analysis. Where a transactional profit split analysis is based on projected revenues and expenses, the concerns with the accuracy of such projections described in Section D.2.6.4.1 should be taken into account ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.148

In some circumstances, a transactional profit split method can be utilised to determine the arm’s length conditions for a transfer of intangibles or rights in intangibles where it is not possible to identify reliable comparable uncontrolled transactions for such transfers. Section C of Chapter II contains guidance to be considered in applying transactional profit split methods. That guidance is fully applicable to matters involving the transfer of intangibles or rights in intangibles. In evaluating the reliability of transactional profit split methods, however, the availability of reliable and adequate data regarding the relevant profits to be split, appropriately allocable expenses, and the reliability of factors used to divide the relevant income should be fully considered ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.145

The transfer pricing methods most likely to prove useful in matters involving transfers of one or more intangibles are the CUP method and the transactional profit split method. Valuation techniques can be useful tools. Supplemental guidance on the transfer pricing methods most likely to be useful in connection with transfers of intangibles is provided below ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.144

The provisions of paragraph 2.10 related to the use of rules of thumb apply to determinations of a correct transfer price in any controlled transaction, including cases involving the use or transfer of intangibles. Accordingly, a rule of thumb cannot be used to evidence that a price or apportionment of income is arm’s length, including in particular an apportionment of income between a licensor and a licensee of intangibles ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.143

However, in some limited circumstances, transfer pricing methods based on the estimated cost of reproducing or replacing the intangible may be utilised. Such approaches may sometimes have valid application with regard to the development of intangibles used for internal business operations (e.g. internal software systems), particularly where the intangibles in question are not unique and valuable intangibles. Where intangibles relating to products sold in the marketplace are at issue, however, replacement cost valuation methods raise serious comparability issues. Among other concerns, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of time delays associated with deferred development on the value of the intangibles. Often, there may be a significant first mover advantage in having a product on the market at an early date. As a result, an identical product (and the supporting intangibles) developed in future periods will not be as valuable as the same product (and the supporting intangibles) available currently. In such a case, the estimated replacement cost will not ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.142

The use of transfer pricing methods that seek to estimate the value of intangibles based on the cost of intangible development is generally discouraged. There rarely is any correlation between the cost of developing intangibles and their value or transfer price once developed. Hence, transfer pricing methods based on the cost of intangible development should usually be avoided ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.141

Care should be used, in applying certain of the OECD transfer pricing methods in a matter involving the transfer of intangibles or rights in intangibles. One sided methods, including the resale price method and the TNMM, are generally not reliable methods for directly valuing intangibles. In some circumstances such mechanisms can be utilised to indirectly value intangibles by determining values for some functions using those methods and deriving a residual value for intangibles. However, the principles of paragraph 6.133 are important when following such approaches and care should be exercised to ensure that all functions, risks, assets and other factors contributing to the generation of income are properly identified and evaluated ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.140

In identifying prices and other conditions that would have been agreed between independent enterprises under comparable circumstances, it is often essential to carefully identify idiosyncratic aspects of the controlled transaction that arise by virtue of the relationship between the parties. There is no requirement that associated enterprises structure their transactions in precisely the same manner as independent enterprises might have done. However, where transactional structures are utilised by associated enterprises that are not typical of transactions between independent parties, the effect of those structures on prices and other conditions that would have been agreed between uncontrolled parties under comparable circumstances should be taken into account in evaluating the profits that would have accrued to each of the parties at arm’s length ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.139

Where information regarding reliable comparable uncontrolled transactions cannot be identified, the arm’s length principle requires use of another method to determine the price that uncontrolled parties would have agreed under comparable circumstances. In making such determinations, it is important to consider: The functions, assets and risks of the respective parties to the transaction. The business reasons for engaging in the transaction. The perspectives of and options realistically available to each of the parties to the transaction. The competitive advantages conferred by the intangibles including especially the relative profitability of products and services or potential products and services related to the intangibles. The expected future economic benefits from the transaction. Other comparability factors such as features of local markets, location savings, assembled workforce, and MNE group synergies ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.138

However, it will often be the case in matters involving transfers of intangibles or rights in intangibles that the comparability analysis (including the functional analysis) reveals that there are no reliable comparable uncontrolled transactions that can be used to determine the arm’s length price and other conditions. This can occur if the intangibles in question have unique characteristics, or if they are of such critical importance that such intangibles are transferred only among associated enterprises. It may also result from a lack of available data regarding potentially comparable transactions or from other causes. Notwithstanding the lack of reliable comparables, it is usually possible to determine the arm’s length price and other conditions for the controlled transaction ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.137

Where the comparability analysis identifies reliable information related to comparable uncontrolled transactions, the determination of arm’s length prices for a transfer of intangibles or rights in intangibles can be determined on the basis of such comparables after making any comparability adjustments that may be appropriate and reliable ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.136

Depending on the specific facts, any of the five OECD transfer pricing methods described in Chapter II might constitute the most appropriate transfer pricing method to the circumstances of the case where the transaction involves a controlled transfer of one or more intangibles. The use of other alternatives may also be appropriate ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.135

Paragraphs 3.9 to 3.12 and paragraph 3.37 provide guidance regarding the aggregation of separate transactions for purposes of transfer pricing analysis. Those principles apply fully to cases involving the transfer of intangibles or rights in intangibles and are supplemented by the guidance in Section C of this chapter. Indeed, it is often the case that intangibles may be transferred in combination with other intangibles, or in combination with transactions involving the sale of goods or the performance of services. In such situations it may well be that the most reliable transfer pricing analysis will consider the interrelated transactions in the aggregate as necessary to improve the reliability of the analysis ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.134

The principles set out in paragraphs 2.12, 3.58 and 3.59 regarding the use of more than one transfer pricing method apply to matters involving the transfer of intangibles or rights in intangibles ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.133

This chapter makes it clear that in matters involving the transfer of intangibles or rights in intangibles it is important not to simply assume that all residual profit, after a limited return to those providing functions, should necessarily be allocated to the owner of intangibles. The selection of the most appropriate transfer pricing method should be based on a functional analysis that provides a clear understanding of the MNE’s global business processes and how the transferred intangibles interact with other functions, assets and risks that comprise the global business. The functional analysis should identify all factors that contribute to value creation, which may include risks borne, specific market characteristics, location, business strategies, and MNE group synergies among others. The transfer pricing method selected, and any adjustments incorporated in that method based on the comparability analysis, should take into account all of the relevant factors materially contributing to the creation of value, not only intangibles and routine functions ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.132

In applying the principles of paragraphs 2.1 to 2.12 to matters involving the transfer of intangibles or rights in intangibles, it is important to recognise that transactions structured in different ways may have similar economic consequences. For example, the performance of a service using intangibles may have very similar economic consequences to a transaction involving the transfer of an intangible (or the transfer of rights in the intangible), as either may convey the value of the intangible to the transferee. Accordingly, in selecting the most appropriate transfer pricing method in connection with a transaction involving the transfer of intangibles or rights in intangibles, it is important to consider the economic consequences of the transaction, rather than proceeding on the basis of an arbitrary label ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.131

The principles of these Guidelines related to the selection of the most appropriate transfer pricing method to the circumstances of the case are described in paragraphs 2.1 to 2.12. Those principles apply fully to cases involving the transfer of intangibles or rights in intangibles. In selecting the most appropriate transfer pricing method in a case involving a transfer of intangibles or rights in intangibles, attention should be given to (i) the nature of the relevant intangibles, (ii) the difficulty of identifying comparable uncontrolled transactions and intangibles in many, if not most, cases, and (iii) the difficulty of applying certain of the transfer pricing methods described in Chapter II in cases involving the transfer of intangibles. The issues discussed below are particularly important in the selection of transfer pricing methods under the Guidelines ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.74

Arm’s length prices and other conditions for transactions should be determined according to the guidance in Chapters I – III, taking into account the contributions to anticipated intangible value of functions performed, assets used, and risks assumed at the time such functions are performed, assets are used, or risks are assumed as discussed in this Section B of this chapter. Section D of this chapter provides supplemental guidance on transfer pricing methods and other matters applicable in determining arm’s length prices and other conditions for transactions involving intangibles ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter II paragraph 2.187

In all cases, caution must be used to determine whether a transactional profit method as applied to a particular aspect of a case can produce an arm’s length answer, either in conjunction with a traditional transaction method or on its own. The question ultimately can be resolved only on a case-by-case basis taking into account the strengths and weaknesses set forth above for a particular transactional profit method to be applied, the comparability (including functional) analysis of the parties to the transaction, and the availability and reliability of comparable data. In addition, these conclusions assume that countries will have a certain degree of sophistication in their underlying tax systems before applying these methods ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter II paragraph 2.186

The recognition that the use of transactional profit methods may be necessary is not intended to suggest that independent enterprises would use these methods to set prices. As with any method, it is important that it be possible to calculate appropriate corresponding adjustments when transactional profit methods are used, recognising that in certain cases corresponding adjustments may be determined on an aggregate basis consistent with the aggregation principles in paragraphs 3.9-3.12 ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter II paragraph 2.185

As discussed in these Guidelines, there are concerns regarding the use of the transactional net margin method, in particular that it is sometimes applied without adequately taking into account the relevant differences between the controlled and uncontrolled transactions being compared. Many countries are concerned that the safeguards established for the traditional transaction methods may be overlooked in applying the transactional net margin method. Thus, where differences in the characteristics of the transactions being compared have a material effect on the net profit indicators being used, it would not be appropriate to apply the transactional net margin method without making adjustments for such differences. See paragraphs 2.74-2.81 (the comparability standard to be applied to the transactional net margin method) ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter II paragraph 2.184

Paragraphs 2.1-2.12 provide guidance on the selection of the most appropriate transfer pricing method to the circumstances of the case ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter II paragraph 2.179

Asset-based or capital-based profit splitting factors can be used where there is a strong correlation between tangible assets or intangibles, or capital employed and creation of value in the context of the controlled transaction. In order for a profit splitting factor to be meaningful, it should be applied consistently to all the parties to the transaction. See paragraph 2.104 for a discussion of comparability issues in relation to asset valuation in the context of the transactional net margin method, which is also valid in the context of the transactional profit split method. Example 15 in Annex II to this chapter illustrates the principles of this section ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter II paragraph 2.178

Internal data are essential to assess the values of the respective contributions of the parties to the controlled transaction. The determination of such values should rely on a functional analysis that takes into account all the economically significant functions, assets and risks contributed by the parties to the controlled transaction. In those cases where the profit is split on the basis of an evaluation of the relative importance of the functions, assets and risks to the value added to the controlled transaction, such evaluation should be supported by reliable objective data in order to limit arbitrariness. Particular attention should be given to the identification of the relevant contributions of unique and valuable intangibles and the assumption of economically significant risks and the importance, relevance and measurement of the factors which gave rise to these ... Read more