Tag: Use of range

TPG2022 Chapter IV Annex II paragraph 49

Another possible way of achieving the objective of increasing certainty, is to agree an acceptable range of results from applying the method of the MAP APA. In order to conform with the arm’s length principle, the range should be agreed by all affected parties in advance, thereby avoiding the use of hindsight, and based on what independent parties would have agreed to in comparable circumstances (see paragraphs 3.55-3.66 for discussion of the range concept). For example, the quantum of an item, such as a royalty, would be accepted so long as it remained within a certain range expressed as a proportion of the profits ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter II paragraph 2.79

It might be argued that the potential inaccuracies resulting from the above types of factors can be reflected in the size of the arm’s length range. The use of a range may to some extent mitigate the level of inaccuracy, but may not account for situations where a taxpayer’s profits are increased or reduced by a factor unique to that taxpayer. In such a case, the range may not include points representing the profits of independent enterprises that are affected in a similar manner by a unique factor. The use of a range, therefore, may not always solve the difficulties discussed above. See discussion of arm’s length ranges at paragraphs 3.55-3.66 ... Read more
Greece vs "G Pharma Ltd", july 2020, Tax Court, Case No 1582/2020

Greece vs “G Pharma Ltd”, july 2020, Tax Court, Case No 1582/2020

“G Pharma Ltd” is a distributor of generic and specialised pharmaceutical products purchased exclusively from affiliated suppliers. It has no significant intangible assets nor does it assume any significant risks. However for 17 consecutive years it has had losses. Following an audit, the tax authorities issued an assessment, where the income of G Pharma Ltd was determined by application of the Transactional Net Margin Method (TNMM). According to the tax authorities a limited risk distributor such as G Pharma Ltd would be expected to be compensated with a small, guaranteed, positive profitability. G Pharma Ltd disagreed with the assessment and filed an appeal. Judgement of the Court The court dismissed the appeal of G Pharma Ltd and upheld the assessment issued by the tax authorities. Excerpts “First, the reasons for the rejection of the final comparable sample of two companies were set out in detail and then the reasons for using the net profit margin as an appropriate indicator of ... Read more

TPG2017 Chapter II paragraph 2.79

It might be argued that the potential inaccuracies resulting from the above types of factors can be reflected in the size of the arm’s length range. The use of a range may to some extent mitigate the level of inaccuracy, but may not account for situations where a taxpayer’s profits are increased or reduced by a factor unique to that taxpayer. In such a case, the range may not include points representing the profits of independent enterprises that are affected in a similar manner by a unique factor. The use of a range, therefore, may not always solve the difficulties discussed above. See discussion of arm’s length ranges at paragraphs 3.55-3.66 ... Read more