Tag: Valuation

Transfer pricing valuations (-methods, -techniques, -tools, -approaches) are used to determine the arm’s length price for transfers of assets between group entities.

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(vii) Example 3.

(i) USP, a U.S. corporation, and its wholly-owned foreign subsidiaries FS1, FS2, and FS3 enter into a CSA at the start of Year 1 to develop version 2.0 of a computer program. USP makes a platform contribution, version 1.0 of the program (upon which version 2.0 will be based), for which compensation is due from FS1, FS2, and FS3. None of the foreign subsidiaries makes any platform contributions. (ii) In Year 6, the Commissioner audits Years 3 through 5 of the CSA and considers whether any periodic adjustments should be made. At the time of the Determination Date, the Commissioner determines that the first Adjustment Year in which a Periodic Trigger occurred was Year 3, and further determines that none of the exceptions to periodic adjustments described in paragraph (i)(6)(vi) of this section applies. The Commissioner exercises his discretion under paragraph (i)(6)(i) of this section to make periodic adjustments using Year 3 as the Adjustment Year. Therefore, the arm’s length PCT Payments from FS1, ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(vii) Example 2.

The facts are the same as in paragraphs (i) through (iii) of Example 1. At the time of the Determination Date, it is determined that the first Adjustment Year in which a Periodic Trigger occurred was Year 6, when the AERR of FS was determined to be 2.73. Upon further investigation as to what may have caused the high return in FS’s market, the Commissioner learns that, in Years 4 through 6, USP’s leading competitors experienced severe, unforeseen disruptions in their supply chains resulting in a significant increase in USP’s and FS’s market share for cell phones. Further analysis determines that without this unforeseen occurrence the Periodic Trigger would not have occurred. Based on paragraph (i)(6)(vi)(A)(2) of this section, the Commissioner determines to his satisfaction that no adjustments are warranted ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(vii) Example 1.

(i) For simplicity of calculation in this Example 1, all financial flows are assumed to occur at the beginning of the year. At the beginning of Year 1, USP, a publicly traded U.S. company, and FS, its wholly-owned foreign subsidiary, enter into a CSA to develop new technology for cell phones. USP has a platform contribution, the rights for an in-process technology that when developed will improve the clarity of calls, for which compensation is due from FS. FS has no platform contributions to the CSA, no operating contributions, and no operating cost contributions. USP and FS agree to fixed PCT payments of $40 million in Year 1 and $10 million per year for Years 2 through 10. At the beginning of Year 1, the weighted average cost of capital of the controlled group that includes USP and FS is 15%. In Year 9, the Commissioner audits Years 5 through 7 of the CSA and considers whether any periodic adjustments should be ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(vi)(B)(1) 10-year period.

In any year subsequent to the 10-year period beginning with the first taxable year in which there is substantial exploitation of cost shared intangibles resulting from the CSA, if the AERR determined is within the PRRR for each year of such 10-year period ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(vi)(A)(4) Increased AERR does not cause Periodic Trigger –

(i) The Periodic Trigger would not have occurred had the divisional profits or losses of the PCT Payor used to calculate its PVTP included its reasonably anticipated divisional profits or losses after the Adjustment Year from the CSA Activity, including from its routine contributions, its operating cost contributions, and its nonroutine contributions to that activity, and had the cost contributions and PCT Payments of the PCT Payor used to calculate its PVI included its reasonably anticipated cost contributions and PCT Payments after the Adjustment Year. The reasonably anticipated amounts in the previous sentence are determined based on all information available as of the Determination Date. (ii) For purposes of this paragraph (i)(6)(vi)(A)(4), the controlled participants may, if they wish, assume that the average yearly divisional profits or losses for all taxable years prior to and including the Adjustment Year, in which there has been substantial exploitation of cost shared intangibles resulting from the CSA (exploitation years), will continue to be earned in each ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(vi)(A)(3) Reduced AERR does not cause Periodic Trigger.

The Periodic Trigger would not have occurred had the PCT Payor’s divisional profits or losses used to calculate its PVTP both taken into account expenses on account of operating cost contributions and routine platform contributions, and excluded those profits or losses attributable to the PCT Payor’s routine contributions to its exploitation of cost shared intangibles, nonroutine contributions to the CSA Activity, operating cost contributions, and routine platform contributions ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(vi)(A)(1) Transactions involving the same platform contribution as in the Trigger PCT.

(i) The same platform contribution is furnished to an uncontrolled taxpayer under substantially the same circumstances as those of the relevant Trigger PCT and with a similar form of payment as the Trigger PCT; (ii) This transaction serves as the basis for the application of the comparable uncontrolled transaction method described in paragraph (g)(3) of this section, in the first year and all subsequent years in which substantial PCT Payments relating to the Trigger PCT were required to be paid; and (iii) The amount of those PCT Payments in that first year was arm’s length ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(vi)(A) Controlled participants establish periodic adjustment not warranted.

No periodic adjustment will be made under paragraphs (i)(6)(i) and (v) of this section if the controlled participants establish to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that all the conditions described in one of paragraphs (i)(6)(vi)(A)(1) through (4) of this section apply with respect to the Trigger PCT ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(v)(B) Adjusted RPSM as of Determination Date.

The Adjusted RPSM is the residual profit split method pursuant to paragraph (g)(7) of this section applied to determine the present value, as of the date of the Trigger PCT, of the PCT Payments under paragraph (g)(7)(iii)(C)(3) of this section, with the following modifications. (1) Actual results up through the Determination Date shall be substituted for what otherwise were the projected results over such period, as reasonably anticipated as of the date of the Trigger PCT. (2) Projected results for the balance of the CSA Activity after the Determination Date, as reasonably anticipated as of the Determination Date, shall be substituted for what otherwise were the projected results over such period, as reasonably anticipated as of the date of the Trigger PCT. (3) The requirement in paragraph (g)(7)(i) of this section, that at least two controlled participants make significant nonroutine contributions, does not apply ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(v)(A) In general.

Periodic adjustments are determined by the following steps: (1) First, determine the present value, as of the date of the Trigger PCT, of the PCT Payments under paragraph (g)(7)(iii)(C)(3) of this section pursuant to the Adjusted RPSM as defined in paragraph (i)(6)(v)(B) of this section (first step result). (2) Second, convert the first step result into a stream of contingent payments on a base of reasonably anticipated divisional profits or losses over the entire duration of the CSA Activity, using a level royalty rate (second step rate). See paragraph (h)(2)(iv) of this section (Conversion from fixed to contingent form of payment). This conversion is made based on all information known as of the Determination Date. (3) Third, apply the second step rate to the actual divisional profit or loss for taxable years preceding and including the Adjustment Year to yield a stream of contingent payments for such years, and convert such stream to a present value as of the CSA Start Date under the principles of paragraph (g)(2)(v) of this section ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(v) Determination of periodic adjustments.

In the event of a Periodic Trigger, subject to paragraph (i)(6)(vi) of this section, the Commissioner may make periodic adjustments with respect to all PCT Payments between all PCT Payors and PCT Payees for the Adjustment Year and all subsequent years for the duration of the CSA Activity pursuant to the residual profit split method as provided in paragraph (g)(7) of this section, subject to the further modifications in this paragraph (i)(6)(v). A periodic adjustment may be made for a particular taxable year without regard to whether the taxable years of the Trigger PCT or other PCTs remain open for statute of limitation purposes ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(iv)(E) Generally accepted accounting principles.

For purposes of paragraph (i)(6)(iv)(C) of this section, a financial statement prepared in accordance with a comprehensive body of generally accepted accounting principles other than United States generally accepted accounting principles is considered to be prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles provided that the amounts of debt, equity, and interest expense are reflected in any reconciliation between such other accounting principles and United States generally accepted accounting principles required to be incorporated into the financial statement by the securities laws governing companies whose stock is regularly traded on United States securities markets ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(iv)(C) Publicly traded.

A PCT Payor meets the conditions of this paragraph (i)(6)(iv)(C) if – (1) Stock of the PCT Payor is publicly traded; or (2) Stock of the PCT Payor is not publicly traded, provided the PCT Payor is included in a group of companies for which consolidated financial statements are prepared; and a publicly traded company in such group owns, directly or indirectly, stock in PCT Payor. Stock of a company is publicly traded within the meaning of this paragraph (i)(6)(iv)(C) if such stock is regularly traded on an established United States securities market and the company issues financial statements prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles for the taxable year ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(iv)(B) Publicly traded companies.

If the PCT Payor meets the conditions of paragraph (i)(6)(iv)(C) of this section, the ADR is the PCT Payor WACC as of the date of the Trigger PCT. However, if the Commissioner determines, or the controlled participants establish to the satisfaction of the Commissioner, that a discount rate other than the PCT Payor WACC better reflects the degree of risk of the CSA Activity as of such date, the ADR is such other discount rate ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(iii)(C) PVI.

The PVI is the present value, as of the CSA Start Date, of the PCT Payor’s investment associated with the CSA Activity, defined as the sum of its cost contributions and its PCT Payments, from the CSA Start Date through the end of the Adjustment Year. For purposes of computing the PVI, PCT Payments means all PCT Payments due from a PCT Payor before netting against PCT Payments due from other controlled participants pursuant to paragraph (j)(3)(ii) of this section ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(iii)(B) PVTP.

The PVTP is the present value, as of the CSA Start Date, as defined in section (j)(1)(i) of this section, of the PCT Payor’s actually experienced divisional profits or losses from the CSA Start Date through the end of the Adjustment Year ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(iii)(A) In general.

The AERR is the present value of total profits (PVTP) divided by the present value of investment (PVI). In computing PVTP and PVI, present values are computed using the applicable discount rate (ADR), and all information available as of the Determination Date is taken into account ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(ii) PRRR.

Except as provided in the next sentence, the PRRR will consist of return ratios that are not less than .667 nor more than 1.5. Alternatively, if the controlled participants have not substantially complied with the documentation requirements referenced in paragraph (k) of this section, as modified, if applicable, by paragraphs (m)(2) and (3) of this section, the PRRR will consist of return ratios that are not less than .8 nor more than 1.25 ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(6)(i) In general.

Subject to the exceptions in paragraph (i)(6)(vi) of this section, the Commissioner may make periodic adjustments for an open taxable year (the Adjustment Year) and for all subsequent taxable years for the duration of the CSA Activity with respect to all PCT Payments, if the Commissioner determines that, for a particular PCT (the Trigger PCT), a particular controlled participant that owes or owed a PCT Payment relating to that PCT (such controlled participant being referred to as the PCT Payor for purposes of this paragraph (i)(6)) has realized an Actually Experienced Return Ratio (AERR) that is outside the Periodic Return Ratio Range (PRRR). The satisfaction of the condition stated in the preceding sentence is referred to as a Periodic Trigger. See paragraphs (i)(6)(ii) through (vi) of this section regarding the PRRR, the AERR, and periodic adjustments. In determining whether to make such adjustments, the Commissioner may consider whether the outcome as adjusted more reliably reflects an arm’s length result under all the relevant facts and circumstances, including ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(5) Allocations when CSTs are consistently and materially disproportionate to RAB shares.

If a controlled participant bears IDC shares that are consistently and materially greater or lesser than its RAB share, then the Commissioner may conclude that the economic substance of the arrangement between the controlled participants is inconsistent with the terms of the CSA. In such a case, the Commissioner may disregard such terms and impute an agreement that is consistent with the controlled participants’ course of conduct, under which a controlled participant that bore a disproportionately greater IDC share received additional interests in the cost shared intangibles. See §§ 1.482-1(d)(3)(ii)(B) (Identifying contractual terms) and 1.482-4(f)(3)(ii) (Identification of owner). Such additional interests will consist of partial undivided interests in the other controlled participant’s interest in the cost shared intangible. Accordingly, that controlled participant must receive arm’s length consideration from any controlled participant whose IDC share is less than its RAB share over time, under the provisions of §§ 1.482-1 and 1.482-4 through 1.482-6 to provide compensation for the latter controlled participants’ use of such partial undivided interest ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(3) PCT allocations.

The Commissioner may make allocations to adjust the results of a PCT so that the results are consistent with an arm’s length result in accordance with the provisions of the applicable sections of the regulations under section 482, as determined pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of this section ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(2)(iii) Timing of CST allocations.

If the Commissioner makes an allocation to adjust the results of a CST, the allocation must be reflected for tax purposes in the year in which the IDCs were incurred. When a CST payment is owed by one controlled participant to another controlled participant, the Commissioner may make appropriate allocations to reflect an arm’s length rate of interest for the time value of money, consistent with the provisions of § 1.482-2(a) (Loans or advances) ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(2)(ii)(D) Example 7.

(i) The facts are the same as in Example 6, except that the actual sales results through Year 5 are as follows: Sales [In millions of dollars] Year USS FP 1 0 17 2 17 35 3 25 44 4 34 54 5 36 55 (ii) Based on the discrepancy between the projections and the actual results and on consideration of all the facts, the Commissioner determines that for the remaining years the following sales projections are more reliable than the original projections: Sales [In millions of dollars] Year USS FP 6 36 55 7 36 55 8 18 28 9 9 14 10 4.5 7 (iii) Combining the actual results through Year 5 with the projections for subsequent years, and using a discount rate of 10%, the present discounted value of sales is approximately $131.2 million for USS and $229.4 million for FP. This result implies that USS and FP obtain approximately 35.4% and 63.6%, respectively, of the anticipated benefits from ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(2)(ii)(D) Example 6.

(i)(A) Foreign Parent (FP) and U.S. Subsidiary (USS) enter into a CSA in 1996 to develop a new treatment for baldness. USS’s interest in any treatment developed is the right to produce and sell the treatment in the U.S. market while FP retains rights to produce and sell the treatment in the rest of the world. USS and FP measure their anticipated benefits from the CSA based on their respective projected future sales of the baldness treatment. The following sales projections are used: Sales [In millions of dollars] Year USS FP 1 5 10 2 20 20 3 30 30 4 40 40 5 40 40 6 40 40 7 40 40 8 20 20 9 10 10 10 5 5 (B) In Year 1, the first year of sales, USS is projected to have lower sales than FP due to lags in U.S. regulatory approval for the baldness treatment. In each subsequent year, USS and FP are projected to ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(2)(ii)(D) Example 5.

The facts are the same as in Example 4. In addition, the Commissioner determines that FS2 has significant operating losses and has no earnings and profits, and that FS1 is profitable and has earnings and profits. Based on all the evidence, the Commissioner concludes that the controlled participants arranged that FS1 would bear a larger cost share than appropriate in order to reduce FS1’s earnings and profits and thereby reduce inclusions USP otherwise would be deemed to have on account of FS1 under subpart F. Pursuant to paragraph (i)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, the Commissioner may make an adjustment solely to the cost shares borne by FS1 and FS2 because FS2’s projection of future benefits was unreliable and the variation between adjusted and projected benefits had the effect of substantially reducing USP’s U.S. income tax liability (on account of FS1 subpart F income) ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(2)(ii)(D) Example 4.

Three controlled taxpayers, USP, FS1, and FS2 enter into a CSA. FS1 and FS2 are foreign. USP is a domestic corporation that controls all the stock of FS1 and FS2. The controlled participants project that they will share the total benefits of the cost shared intangibles in the following percentages: USP 50%; FS1 30%; and FS2 20%. Adjusted benefit shares are as follows: USP 45%; FS1 25%; and FS2 30%. In evaluating the reliability of the controlled participants’ projections, the Commissioner compares these adjusted benefit shares to the projected benefit shares. For this purpose, FS1 and FS2 are treated as a single controlled participant. The adjusted benefit share received by USP (45%) is within 20% of its projected benefit share (50%). In addition, the non-US controlled participant’s adjusted benefit share (55%) is also within 20% of their projected benefit share (50%). Therefore, the Commissioner concludes that the controlled participant’s projections of future benefits were reliable, despite the fact that FS2’s ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(2)(ii)(D) Example 3.

U.S. Parent (USP), a U.S. corporation, and its foreign subsidiary (FS) enter into a CSA in Year 1. They project that they will begin to receive benefits from cost shared intangibles in Years 4 through 6, and that USP will receive 60% of total benefits and FS 40% of total benefits. In Years 4 through 6, USP and FS actually receive 50% each of the total benefits. In evaluating the reliability of the controlled participants’ projections, the Commissioner compares the adjusted benefit shares to the projected benefit shares. Although USP’s adjusted benefit share (50%) is within 20% of its projected benefit share (60%), FS’s adjusted benefit share (50%) is not within 20% of its projected benefit share (40%). Based on this discrepancy, the Commissioner may conclude that the controlled participants’ projections were unreliable and may use adjusted benefit shares as the basis for an adjustment to the cost shares borne by USP and FS ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(2)(ii)(D) Example 2.

The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that in Year 3 USP and FS actually accounted for 35% and 65% of total sales, respectively. The divergence between USP’s projected and adjusted benefit shares is greater than 20% of USP’s projected benefit share and is not due to an extraordinary event beyond the control of the controlled participants. The Commissioner concludes that the projected benefit shares were unreliable, and uses adjusted benefit shares as the basis for an adjustment to the cost shares borne by USP and FS ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(2)(ii)(D) Example 1.

U.S. Parent (USP) and Foreign Subsidiary (FS) enter into a CSA to develop new food products, dividing costs on the basis of projected sales two years in the future. In Year 1, USP and FS project that their sales in Year 3 will be equal, and they divide costs accordingly. In Year 3, the Commissioner examines the controlled participants’ method for dividing costs. USP and FS actually accounted for 42% and 58% of total sales, respectively. The Commissioner agrees that sales two years in the future provide a reliable basis for estimating benefit shares. Because the differences between USP’s and FS’s adjusted and projected benefit shares are less than 20% of their projected benefit shares, the projection of future benefits for Year 3 is reliable ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(2)(ii)(C) Correlative adjustments to PCTs.

Correlative adjustments will be made to any PCT Payments of a fixed amount that were determined based on RAB shares that are subsequently adjusted on a finding that they were based on unreliable projections. No correlative adjustments will be made to contingent PCT Payments regardless of whether RAB shares were used as a parameter in the valuation of those payments ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(2)(ii)(A) Unreliable projections.

A significant divergence between projected benefit shares and benefit shares adjusted to take into account any available actual benefits to date (adjusted benefit shares) may indicate that the projections were not reliable for purposes of estimating RAB shares. In such a case, the Commissioner may use adjusted benefit shares as the most reliable measure of RAB shares and adjust IDC shares accordingly. The projected benefit shares will not be considered unreliable, as applied in a given taxable year, based on a divergence from adjusted benefit shares for every controlled participant that is less than or equal to 20% of the participant’s projected benefits share. Further, the Commissioner will not make an allocation based on such divergence if the difference is due to an extraordinary event, beyond the control of the controlled participants, which could not reasonably have been anticipated at the time that costs were shared. The Commissioner generally may adjust projections of benefits used to calculate benefit shares in ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(2)(i) In general.

The Commissioner may make allocations to adjust the results of a CST so that the results are consistent with an arm’s length result, including any allocations to make each controlled participant’s IDC share, as determined under paragraph (d)(4) of this section, equal to that participant’s RAB share, as determined under paragraph (e)(1) of this section. Such allocations may result from, for purposes of CST determinations, adjustments to – (A) Redetermine IDCs by adding any costs (or cost categories) that are directly identified with, or are reasonably allocable to, the IDA, or by removing any costs (or cost categories) that are not IDCs; (B) Reallocate costs between the IDA and other business activities; (C) Improve the reliability of the selection or application of the basis used for measuring benefits for purposes of estimating a controlled participant’s RAB share; (D) Improve the reliability of the projections used to estimate RAB shares, including adjustments described in paragraph (i)(2)(ii) of this section; and (E) Allocate among the controlled participants any unallocated interests in cost shared ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(i)(1) In general.

The Commissioner may make allocations to adjust the results of a controlled transaction in connection with a CSA so that the results are consistent with an arm’s length result, in accordance with the provisions of this paragraph (i) ... Read more

§ 1.482-7(h)(3) Coordination of best method rule and form of payment.

A method described in paragraph (g)(1) of this section evaluates the arm’s length amount charged in a PCT in terms of a form of payment (method payment form). For example, the method payment form for the acquisition price method described in paragraph (g)(5) of this section, and for the market capitalization method described in paragraph (g)(6) of this section, is fixed payment. Applications of the income method provide different method payment forms. See paragraphs (g)(4)(i)(E) and (iv) of this section. The method payment form may not necessarily correspond to the form of payment specified pursuant to paragraphs (h)(2)(iii) and (k)(2)(ii)(l) of this section (specified payment form). The determination under § 1.482-1(c) of the method that provides the most reliable measure of an arm’s length result is to be made without regard to whether the respective method payment forms under the competing methods correspond to the specified payment form. If the method payment form of the method determined under § 1.482-1(c) to provide the most reliable measure of an arm’s length result differs from the ... Read more