The EU Anti Tax Avoidance Package – Anti Tax Avoidance Directives (ATAD I & II) and Other Measures

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Anti Tax Avoidance measures are now beeing implemented across the EU with effect as of 1 January 2019.

The EU Anti Tax Avoidance Package (ATAP) was issued by the European Commission in 2016 to counter tax avoidance behavior of MNEs in the EU and to align tax payments with value creation. The package includes the Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive, an amending Directive as regards hybrid mismatches with third countries, and four Other measures.


The Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive (ATAD), COUNCIL DIRECTIVE (EU) 2016/1164 of 12 July 2016, introduces five anti-abuse measures, against tax avoidance practices that directly affect the functioning of the internal market.

1) Interest Limitation Rule  – Reduce profitshifting via exessive interest payments (Article 4)
2) Exit Taxation – Prevent tax motivated movement of valuable business assets (eg. intangibles) across borders (Article 5)
3) General Anti-Avoidance Rule (GAAR) – Discourage Artificial Arrangements (Article 6)
4) Controlled Foreign Company (CFC) – Reduce profits shifting to low tax jurisdictions (Article 7, 8)
5) Hybrid Mismatch Rule – Reduce Hybrid Mismatch Possibilities (Article 9 + ATAD II)

The first measure, interest limitation rule aims to prevent profitshifting activities that take place via exessive interest payments . This rule restricts deductibility of interest expenses and similar payments from the tax base.

The second measure, exit taxation, deals with cases where the tax base (eg. valuable intangible assets) is moved across borders.

The third measure is the general antiavoidance rule (GAAR) which allows countries to tackle artificial tax arrangements not govened by rational economic reasons.

The fourth measure is the controlled foreign company (CFC) rule, which is designed to deter profit-shifting to low-tax countries.

The fifth measure, the rule on hybrid mismatches, aims to limit cases of double non-taxation and assymetric deductions resulting from discrepancies between different tax systems.


ATAD II, COUNCIL DIRECTIVE (EU) 2017/952) of 29 May 2017, an amending Directive as regards hybrid mismatches with third countries, contains a set of additional rules to neutralize hybrid mismatches where at least one of the parties is a corporate taxpayer in an EU Member State, thus expanding the application to Non-EU countries. The second directive also addresses hybrid permanent establishment (PE) mismatches, hybrid transfers, imported mismatches, reverse hybrid mismatches and dual resident mismatches. (Article 9, 9a and 9b)

Other Measures

Other measures included in the Anti Tax Avoidance Package Package are mainly aimed at sharing information and improving knowledge among EU Member States.

1) Country-by-Country Reporting (CbCR) – Improve Transparency (EU Directives on Administrative cooporation in the field of taxation)
2) Recommendation on Tax Treaties – Address Treaty Abuses
3) External Strategy – More Coherent Dealing with Third Countries
4) Study on Aggressive Tax Planning – Improve Knowledge (2015 Report on Structures of Aggressive Tax Planning and Indicators and 2017 Report on Aggressive Tax Planning Indicators)  

The Country-by-Country Reporting (CbCR) requirement introduces a reporting requirement on global income allocations of MNEs to increase transparency and provide Member States with information to detect and prevent tax avoidance schemes.

The Recommendation on Tax Treaties provides Member States with information on how to design their tax treaties in order to minimise aggressive tax-planning in ways that are in line with EU laws.

The External Strategy provides a coherent way for EU Member States to work with third countries, for instance by creating a common EU black list of Low Tax Jurisdictions .

The Study on Aggressive Tax Planning investigates corporate tax rules in Member States that are or may be used in aggressive tax-planning strategies.

Implementation and Effect

Most of the measures introduced in ATAD I are now implemented and in effect as of 1 January 2019. ATAD II, addressing hybrid mismatches with Non-EU countries, is also being implemented and will be in effect as of 1 January 2020.


A Non official version of the 2016 EU Anti Tax Avoidance Directive with the 2017 Amendments

Non official version of the 2016 EU Anti Tax Avoidance Directive with the 2017 Amendments in Blue





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