Tag: Risk

§ 1.482-1(d)(3)(iii)(C) Example 4.

USSub is the wholly-owned U.S. subsidiary of FP, a foreign manufacturer. USSub acts as a distributor of goods manufactured by FP. FP and USSub execute an agreement providing that FP will bear any ordinary product liability costs arising from defects in the goods manufactured by FP. In practice, however, when ordinary product liability claims are sustained against USSub and FP, USSub pays the resulting damages. Therefore, the district director disregards the contractual arrangement regarding product liability costs between FP and USSub, and treats the risk as having been assumed by USSub ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(d)(3)(iii)(C) Example 3.

S, a Country X corporation, manufactures small motors that it sells to P, its U.S. parent. P incorporates the motors into various products and sells those products to uncontrolled customers in the United States. The contract price for the motors is expressed in U.S. dollars, effectively allocating the currency risk for these transactions to S for any currency fluctuations between the time the contract is signed and payment is made. As long as S has adequate financial capacity to bear this currency risk (including by hedging all or part of the risk) and the conduct of S and P is consistent with the terms of the contract (i.e., the contract price is not adjusted to reflect exchange rate movements), the agreement of the parties to allocate the exchange risk to S will be respected ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(d)(3)(iii)(C) Example 2.

The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that in Year 1 FD had only $100,000 in total capital, including loans. In subsequent years USM makes no additional contributions to the capital of FD, and FD is unable to obtain any capital through loans from an unrelated party. Nonetheless, USM continues to sell 20,000 widgets annually to FD under the terms of the contract, and USM extends credit to FD to enable it to finance the purchase. FD does not have the financial capacity in Years 1, 2 and 3 to finance the purchase of the widgets given that it could not sell most of the widgets it purchased during those years. Thus, notwithstanding the terms of the contract, USM and not FD assumed the market risk that a substantial portion of the widgets could not be sold, since in that event FD would not be able to pay USM for all of the widgets it purchased ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(d)(3)(iii)(C) Example 1.

FD, the wholly-owned foreign distributor of USM, a U.S. manufacturer, buys widgets from USM under a written contract. Widgets are a generic electronic appliance. Under the terms of the contract, FD must buy and take title to 20,000 widgets for each of the five years of the contract at a price of $10 per widget. The widgets will be sold under FD’s label, and FD must finance any marketing strategies to promote sales in the foreign market. There are no rebate or buy back provisions. FD has adequate financial capacity to fund its obligations under the contract under any circumstances that could reasonably be expected to arise. In Years 1, 2 and 3, FD sold only 10,000 widgets at a price of $11 per unit. In Year 4, FD sold its entire inventory of widgets at a price of $25 per unit. Since the contractual terms allocating market risk were agreed to before the outcome of such risk was known ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(d)(3)(iii)(B) Identification of taxpayer that bears risk.

In general, the determination of which controlled taxpayer bears a particular risk will be made in accordance with the provisions of § 1.482-1(d)(3)(ii)(B) (Identifying contractual terms). Thus, the allocation of risks specified or implied by the taxpayer’s contractual terms will generally be respected if it is consistent with the economic substance of the transaction. An allocation of risk between controlled taxpayers after the outcome of such risk is known or reasonably knowable lacks economic substance. In considering the economic substance of the transaction, the following facts are relevant – (1) Whether the pattern of the controlled taxpayer’s conduct over time is consistent with the purported allocation of risk between the controlled taxpayers; or where the pattern is changed, whether the relevant contractual arrangements have been modified accordingly; (2) Whether a controlled taxpayer has the financial capacity to fund losses that might be expected to occur as the result of the assumption of a risk, or whether, at arm’s length, another party to ... Read more

§ 1.482-1(d)(3)(iii)(A) Comparability.

Determining the degree of comparability between controlled and uncontrolled transactions requires a comparison of the significant risks that could affect the prices that would be charged or paid, or the profit that would be earned, in the two transactions. Relevant risks to consider include – (1) Market risks, including fluctuations in cost, demand, pricing, and inventory levels; (2) Risks associated with the success or failure of research and development activities; (3) Financial risks, including fluctuations in foreign currency rates of exchange and interest rates; (4) Credit and collection risks; (5) Product liability risks; and (6) General business risks related to the ownership of property, plant, and equipment ... Read more
Germany vs "Turbine Owner Gmbh", September 2016, Supreme Tax Court IV R 1 14

Germany vs “Turbine Owner Gmbh”, September 2016, Supreme Tax Court IV R 1 14

Tax depreciation for wind turbines presupposes economic ownership of the asset. A change in economic ownership requires that any risks are transferred to the purchaser/customer. The German Supreme Tax Court held that economic ownership of an asset is not transferred at the time it generates income but rather when the risk of accidental destruction and accidental deterioration of the asset passes to the buyer. The contractual agreements to that effect are crucial. A German partnership (KG) operated a wind farm consisting of five wind turbines. Each wind turbine on a farm is a separate asset which is to be depreciated, or amortised, separately. In December 2003 the KG entrusted a GmbH with the turnkey construction of the turbines. The purchase price was payable in installments. The GmbH in turn engaged another company with delivery and installation of the wind turbines and also to take them into operation. According to the contract, the risk of accidental destruction and accidental deterioration of the ... Read more
Switzerland vs Swisscargo AG, Oct 2014, Federal Supreme Court, Case No 4A_138/2014

Switzerland vs Swisscargo AG, Oct 2014, Federal Supreme Court, Case No 4A_138/2014

Zero balancing/physical cash pooling involves a physical transfer of money from the accounts of individual group companies to the accounts of the group’s cash pooling company and risks can be considerable. Group companies participating ind the cash pool may loose there funds. Loans in the form of cash pool arrangements must be agreed at arm’s length terms. Click here for translation ... Read more