Tag: Marketing services

Italy vs Dolce & Gabbana S.R.L., November 2022, Supreme Court, Case no 02599/2023

Italy vs Dolce & Gabbana S.R.L., November 2022, Supreme Court, Case no 02599/2023

Italien fashion group, Dolce & Gabbana s.r.l. (hereinafter DG s.r.l.), the licensee of the Dolce&Gabbana trademark, entered into a sub-licensing agreement with its subsidiary Dolce&Gabbana Industria (hereinafter DG Industria or Industria) whereby the former granted to the latter the right to produce, distribute and sell products bearing the well-known trademark throughout the world and undertook to carry out promotion and marketing activities in return for royalties. DG s.r.l., in order to carry out promotion and marketing activities in the U.S.A., made use of the company Dolce&Gabbana Usa Inc. (hereinafter DG Usa) with contracts in force since 2002; in particular, on March 16, 2005, it entered into a service agreement whereby DG Usa undertook to provide the aforesaid services in return for an annual fee payable by DG s.r.l.; this consideration is determined on the basis of the costs analytically attributable to the provision of the agreed services in addition to a mark up, i.e. a mark-up, determined in a variable ... Read more
Czech Republic vs. Eli Lilly ČR, s.r.o., December 2022, Supreme Administrative Court, No. 7 Afs 279/2021 - 65

Czech Republic vs. Eli Lilly ČR, s.r.o., December 2022, Supreme Administrative Court, No. 7 Afs 279/2021 – 65

Eli Lilly ČR imports pharmaceutical products purchased from Eli Lilly Export S.A. (Swiss sales and marketing hub) into the Czech Republic and Slovakia and distributes them to local distributors. The arrangement between the local company and Eli Lilly Export S.A. is based on a Service Contract in which Eli Lilly ČR is named as the service provider to Eli Lilly Export S.A. (the principal). Eli Lilly ČR was selling the products at a lower price than the price it purchased them for from Eli Lilly Export S.A. According to the company this was due to local price controls of pharmaceuticals. At the same time, Eli Lilly ČR was also paid for providing marketing services by the Swiss HQ, which ensured that Eli Lilly ČR was profitable, despite selling the products at a loss. Eli Lilly ČR reported the marketing services as a provision of services with the place of supply outside of the Czech Republic; therefore, the income from such ... Read more
Czech Republic vs ANITA B s.r.o., November 2022, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No 4 Afs 381/2021-40

Czech Republic vs ANITA B s.r.o., November 2022, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No 4 Afs 381/2021-40

Following an audit the tax authorities issued an assessment of additional income resulting from an adjustment of the tax deductions related to marketing expenses. According to the tax authorities the price agreed between the related parties for advertising space was excessive and not determined in accordance with the arm’s length principle. ANITA B s.r.o. filed an appeal against the assessment. The Regional Court dismissed the appeal as unfounded by judgment of 26 October 2021, No. 62 Af 70/2019-48. The Court concluded that the tax authorities had established that the price agreed between ANITA B s.r.o. and its supplier (ELAPROMO) differed from the price that would have been agreed between unrelated parties. The Court upheld the method chosen by the tax authorities and concluded that ANITA B s.r.o. had failed to prove that the advertising costs claimed were justified in full. An appeal was then filed with the Supreme Administrative Court Judgement of the Supreme Administrative Court The court decided in ... Read more

§ 1.482-4(f)(4)(ii) Example 6.

(i) Facts. The year 1 facts are the same as in Example 3. In year 2, FP and USSub enter into a separate services agreement that obligates FP to perform incremental marketing activities, not specified in the year 1 license, by advertising AA trademarked athletic gear in selected international sporting events, such as the Olympics and the soccer World Cup. FP’s corporate advertising department develops and coordinates these special promotions. The separate services agreement obligates USSub to pay an amount to FP for the benefit to USSub that may reasonably be anticipated as the result of FP’s incremental activities. The separate services agreement is not a qualified cost sharing arrangement under § 1.482-7T. FP begins to perform the incremental activities in year 2 pursuant to the separate services agreement. (ii) Whether an allocation is warranted with respect to the incremental marketing activities performed by FP under the separate services agreement would be evaluated under § 1.482-9. Under the circumstances, it is reasonable to anticipate that FP’s ... Read more

§ 1.482-4(f)(4)(ii) Example 5.

(i) Facts. The year 1 facts are the same as in Example 3. In year 2, FP and USSub enter into a separate services agreement that obligates USSub to perform certain incremental marketing activities to promote AA trademark athletic gear in the United States, above and beyond the activities specified in the license agreement executed in year 1. In year 2, USSub begins to perform these incremental activities, pursuant to the separate services agreement with FP. (ii) Whether an allocation is warranted with respect to USSub’s incremental marketing activities covered by the separate services agreement would be evaluated under §§ 1.482-1 and 1.482-9, including a comparison of the compensation provided for the services with the results obtained under a method pursuant to § 1.482-9, selected and applied in accordance with the best method rule of § 1.482-1(c). (iii) Whether an allocation is warranted with respect to the royalty under the license agreement is determined under § 1.482-1, and this section through § 1.482-6. The comparability analysis would include consideration ... Read more
Costa Rica vs British Tobacco Centroamérica S.A. March 2022, Supreme Court, Case No 750-2022

Costa Rica vs British Tobacco Centroamérica S.A. March 2022, Supreme Court, Case No 750-2022

The tax authorities had started investigating a sales contract that British Tobacco Centroamérica S.A. had with a related company abroad for the import of goods. The historical price of the imported goods was compared to the price contained in the later sales contract. In the customs forms, the company declared one value, but in its invoices it recorded another value for the same products. The tax auditor discovered that the sales contract had a clause extending its scope to the provision of consultancy services. The company reported during the audit that the supplying company played a central role in the marketing of products that the local company made by assisting it in the elaboration of marketing studies, sales campaigns and quality studies. On this background an adjustment was issued for additional withholding tax for source income in the form of consultancy services provided by the non-resident. An appeal was filed by the Company. Judgement of the Supreme Court The Supreme ... Read more
India vs Kellogg India Private Limited, February 2022, Income Tax Appellate Tribunal - Mumbai, Case NoITA No. 7342/Mum/2018

India vs Kellogg India Private Limited, February 2022, Income Tax Appellate Tribunal – Mumbai, Case NoITA No. 7342/Mum/2018

Kellogg India Private Limited is engaged in manufacturing and sales of breakfast cereals and convenience foods and it operates as a licensed manufacturer under the Kellogg brand. During the year under consideration, Kellogg India had commenced business of distributing Pringles products in the Indian markets. Kellogg India purchases the pringles product from its AE Pringles International Operations SARL, based in Singapore. Singapore AE does not manufacture pringles, but in turn gets it manufactured from a third party contract manufacturer. Thereafter, the goods are supplied at a cost plus mark up of 5% on third party manufacturer’s cost. These Pringles are later imported by Kellogg India from its AE and distributed in the Indian market. Kellogg India characterised itself as a distributor of Pringles products and is responsible for the strategic and overall management of Pringles business in India. Singapore AE, being the least complex entity, was selected as the tested party for benchmarking the international transaction of import of finished ... Read more
Spain vs Sierra Spain Shopping Centers Services S.L.U., January 2022, National Court, Case No SAN 151/2022 - ECLI:ES:AN:2022:151

Spain vs Sierra Spain Shopping Centers Services S.L.U., January 2022, National Court, Case No SAN 151/2022 – ECLI:ES:AN:2022:151

Sierra Spain Shopping Centers Services S.L.U. is part of a multinational group that manages shopping centres. Sierra Spain had deducted expenses for services rendered from a related party in Portugal. According to Sierra Spain, the services were related to strategic management and marketing. The tax authorities considered the expenses non-deductible and issued an assessment of additional taxable income. With respect to the strategic business management services, the tax authorities found that there was no contract between the parties. In addition, the authorities found the justification for the actual provision of services was insufficient. With regard to the marketing services, these were contracted by the Portugal-based entity to an external supplier and subsequently re-invoiced to the related parties receiving the service in Portugal, Brazil and Spain. The tax authorities considered that these services were shareholder costs and therefore not deductible in Sierra Spain. Sierra Spain appealed to the Tax Court, which upheld the assessment of the tax authorities. An appeal was ... Read more

TPG2022 Chapter VI paragraph 6.76

A common situation where these principles must be applied arises when an enterprise associated with the legal owner of trademarks performs marketing or sales functions that benefit the legal owner of the trademark, for example through a marketing arrangement or through a distribution/marketing arrangement. In such cases, it is necessary to determine how the marketer or distributor should be compensated for its activities. One important issue is whether the marketer/distributor should be compensated only for providing promotion and distribution services, or whether the marketer/distributor should also be compensated for enhancing the value of the trademarks and other marketing intangibles by virtue of its functions performed, assets used, and risks assumed ... Read more
Czech Republic vs D. D. D. SERVIS OPAVA v. o. s., August 2021, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No 1 Afs 109/2021 - 67

Czech Republic vs D. D. D. SERVIS OPAVA v. o. s., August 2021, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No 1 Afs 109/2021 – 67

Following an audit the tax authorities issued an assessment of additional income resulting from an adjustment of the tax deductions related to marketing expenses. According to the tax authorities the parties to the transactions were “otherwise related” within the meaning of the Czech arm’s length provisions in § 23 par. b) point 5 of the Income Tax Act. SERVIS OPAVA filed an appeal against the assessment claiming that the tax authorities did not established the existence of a relationship between the parties and therefore had no legal basis for the adjustment. The Regional Administrative Court dismissed the appeal and upheld the decision of the tax authorities. An appeal was then filed against this decision with the Supreme Administrative Court Judgement of the Supreme Administrative Court The court decided in favour of SERVIS OPAVA. The prerequisite for the adjustment of the tax base pursuant to Section 23(7) of Act No. 586/1992 Coll., on Income Taxes, is the determination that the relationship ... Read more
Czech Republic vs. LCN GROUP s.r.o., July 2021, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No 2 Afs 148/2020 - 37

Czech Republic vs. LCN GROUP s.r.o., July 2021, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No 2 Afs 148/2020 – 37

LCN Group had deducted costs in its taxable income for marketing services provided by related parties – PRESSTEX MEDIA SE and TARDEM Media s.r.o. and PAPILIO. The claimed advertising costs from PRESSTEX in FY 2012 was produced and implemented by PAPILIO and subsequently invoiced to LCN Group, virtually unchanged, at a price 23 times higher than the price of the advertising, without the corresponding value added being justified. In relation to FY 2013, LCN Group claimed advertising costs from TARDEM in a similar pattern where the price was increased by up to 56 times. In both tax periods, LCN Group’s advertising/promotion costs were related to sporting events (gymnastics world cup, tennis tournament and golf tournaments). The tax authorities concluded that the prices agreed between the parties was not at arm’s length and issued an assessment. The Regional Court annulled the assessment. It argued that the tax authorities had not sufficiently dealt with the identification and description of the conditions under ... Read more
India vs Sabic India Pvt Ltd, June 2021, Income Tax Appellate Tribunal - Delhi, ITA No.454/Del/2021

India vs Sabic India Pvt Ltd, June 2021, Income Tax Appellate Tribunal – Delhi, ITA No.454/Del/2021

Sabic India Pvt Ltd was primarily engaged in providing marketing support services to facilitate the selling of fertilizers and chemicals in India on behalf of the Sabic Group holding company. The Indian company did not hold any title to inventories and all products sold were directly invoiced to the holding companies of the taxpayer. To determine the arm’s length remuneration for marketing support services Sabic India Pvt Ltd found that the TNMM was the most appropriate method The tax authorities disagreed and instead held that the CUP method was more appropriate. On that basis an assessment was issued. Judgement of the Tax Appellate Tribunal The Tribunal decided in favor of Sabic India Pvt Ltd and set aside the tax assessment. The Tribunal held that the TNMM cannot be discarded without any valid justification as the method was widely accepted by the Indian revenue since 2009. The Tribunal concluded that the tax authorities were not able to provide any justification for ... Read more
Czech Republic vs D. D. D. SERVIS OPAVA v. o. s., January 2021, Regional Court in Ostrava, Case No 22 Af 42/2019- 36

Czech Republic vs D. D. D. SERVIS OPAVA v. o. s., January 2021, Regional Court in Ostrava, Case No 22 Af 42/2019- 36

Following an audit the tax authorities issued an assessment of additional income resulting from an adjustment of the tax deductions related to marketing expenses. According to the tax authorities the parties to the transactions were “otherwise related” within the meaning of the Czech arm’s length provisions in § 23 par. b) point 5 of the Income Tax Act. SERVIS OPAVA filed an appeal against the assessment claiming that the tax authorities did not established the existence of a relationship between the parties and therefore had no legal basis for the adjustment. Judgment of the Regional Court The Court dismissed the appeal and upheld the decision of the tax authorities. The court first dealt with the interpretation of § 23 par. b) point 5 of the Income Tax Act. In this regard the court stated that was clear from the content of the administrative file that the applicant had a duly concluded contract with the supplier. The court therefore rejected the ... Read more
Italy vs "Plastic Pipes s.p.a.", January 2021, Supreme Court, Case 230-2021

Italy vs “Plastic Pipes s.p.a.”, January 2021, Supreme Court, Case 230-2021

Plastic Pipes s.p.a. produces and sells flexible plastic pipes, via foreign subsidiaries, to which it supplies the product to be resold to foreign customers and it operates abroad, selling the product directly to customers, also in foreign countries where it has a subsidiary. The tax authorities had issued a notice of assessment for FY 2006 claiming that Plastic Pipes s.p.a. had incurred (and deducted) marketing costs in the interest of its subsidiaries, without recharging their share of the expenses. The Court of first instance set aside the assessment of the tax authorities. Judgement of the Supreme Court. The supreme Court dismissed the appeal of the tax authorities. Excerps “…the burden of proof on the tax authorities is limited to providing evidence of the existence of the intra-group transaction and of the agreement of a consideration lower than the normal market value; the taxpayer who intends to contest the tax claim must instead provide evidence that the agreed consideration, or the ... Read more
Belgium vs ALCOPA N.V, September 2020, Supreme Court, Case No RG F.19.0056.N

Belgium vs ALCOPA N.V, September 2020, Supreme Court, Case No RG F.19.0056.N

The dispute concerns a tax assessments issued by the plaintiff (the Belgian tax administration) for FY 2002 and 2003. In particular, the claimant (Alcopa N.V – the first company to sign a European distribution contract with Hyundai) contests the classification of reimbursements received from the Korean company HYUNDAI MOTOR COMPANY for publicity services, for an amount of EUR 1,965,630.46 in assessment year 2002 and for an amount of EUR 1,057,007.00 in assessment year 2003, as abnormal or gratuitous benefits and the consequent rejection of the DBI [Definitief Belaste Inkomsten] deduction from the profits arising from those abnormal or gratuitous benefits in application of Section 207 ITC92. The Antwerp Court of First Instance, Antwerp Division, ruled by judgment dated 13 January 2016 that it was indisputably established that abnormal or gratuitous benefits were granted to the plaintiff, so that the tax administration correctly applied Section 207(2) ITC92 and did not allow a DBI deduction on these benefits. According to the first ... Read more
Czech Republic vs. LCN Group s.r.o., April 2020, Regional Court, Case No 25 Af 76/2019 - 42

Czech Republic vs. LCN Group s.r.o., April 2020, Regional Court, Case No 25 Af 76/2019 – 42

LCN Group s.r.o. had deducted costs in its taxable income for marketing services provided by related parties. Following an audit, the tax authorities concluded that the prices agreed between the parties was not at arm’s length and issued an assessment. Decision of the Regional Court The Regional Court annulled the assessment and decided in favor of the LNC Group. The court held that the tax authorities had not sufficiently dealt with the identification and description of the conditions under which the prices of the controlled transactions had been agreed. The tax authorities had not considered the “commercial strength” and “advertising capacity” of the parties. Click here for English Translation Click here for other translation ... Read more
Czech Republic vs. Eli Lilly ČR, s.r.o., December 2019, District Court of Praque, No. 6 Afs 90/2016 - 62

Czech Republic vs. Eli Lilly ČR, s.r.o., December 2019, District Court of Praque, No. 6 Afs 90/2016 – 62

Eli Lilly ČR imports pharmaceutical products purchased from Eli Lilly Export S.A. (Swiss sales and marketing hub) into the Czech Republic and Slovakia and distributes them to local distributors. The arrangement between the local company and Eli Lilly Export S.A. is based on a Service Contract in which Eli Lilly ČR is named as the service provider to Eli Lilly Export S.A. (the principal). Eli Lilly ČR was selling the products at a lower price than the price it purchased them for from Eli Lilly Export S.A. According to the company this was due to local price controls of pharmaceuticals. Eli Lilly ČR was also paid for providing marketing services by the Swiss HQ, which ensured that Eli Lilly ČR was profitable, despite selling the products at a loss. Eli Lilly ČR reported the marketing services as a provision of services with the place of supply outside of the Czech Republic; therefore, the income from such supply was exempt from ... Read more
Czech Republic vs. J.V., May 2019, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No 2 Afs 131/2018 - 59

Czech Republic vs. J.V., May 2019, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No 2 Afs 131/2018 – 59

For FY 2007, 2008 and 2009, JV had deducted expenses consisting in the payment for services pursuant to invoices issued by BP Property s.r.o. and TOP ZONEVIEW. The services consisted in the provision and implementation of an advertising campaign. Following an audit the tax authorities adjusted JV’s taxable income by the difference found, since pursuant to Article 23(7)(b)(5) of the Income Tax Act, the prices agreed differed from the prices which would have been agreed between unrelated parties in normal commercial relations under the same or similar conditions. JV contested the decision of the tax authorities but the appeal was dismissed by the Regional Court. The Regional Court held that the applicant’s objection – that he did not know and could not have known about the chain because he had dealt only with the managing director of Property Praha or B.V. – was unfounded. Section 23(7)(b)(5) of the Income Tax Act does not require proof of active conduct of all ... Read more
Finland vs Corp, September 2017, HFD:2017:145

Finland vs Corp, September 2017, HFD:2017:145

Ruling by the Finnish Supreme Administrative Court on enterprise resource planning and intra-group services arrangements. A Oyj had provided its subsidiaries with supply chain services, marketing and brand management services as well as personnel and computer services. The services offered by A Plc mainly consisted in the coordination and harmonization of the Group’s operations. A’s turnover consisted almost exclusively of the service fees received from the sale of these administrative services. As a service charge, A Oyj had charged the amount of the costs incurred in producing the services without the amount of the bonus. On the basis of the tax audit findings, the Tax Administration has added to the taxed income of A plc with ex post taxation and tax corrections to the detriment of the taxpayer the sums equivalent to seven percent payables. The amount of the bonus was established on the basis of a comparison of the Bureau van Dijk Amadeus database with the tax audit. As ... Read more
Canada vs. Marzen Artistic Aluminum. January 2016

Canada vs. Marzen Artistic Aluminum. January 2016

The intercompany transactions at issue involved fees paid to the company’s wholly-owned Barbados based subsidiary during taxation years 2000 and 2001 for sales, marketing and support services. The Tax Court of Canada had determined that it was appropriate to apply the CUP method rather than the TNMM, which was advocated by the company’s expert. Canada’s Federal Court of Appeal upheld the decision by the Tax Court of Canada, which in 2014 ruled that the Canada Revenue Agency had largely been correct in reassessing the taxable income of Marzen Artistic Aluminum Ltd ... Read more
Czech Republic vs. JN TRANS s.r.o., November 2014, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No 9 Afs 92/2013

Czech Republic vs. JN TRANS s.r.o., November 2014, Supreme Administrative Court, Case No 9 Afs 92/2013

In this case the court accepted the tax authorities’ procedure for determining the arm’s length price for advertising services, whereby the tax authorities took into account conditions such as the size of the advertising space, the type of event, the duration of the advertising, etc., when comparing controlled and uncontrolled transactions The appeal of JN Trans was dismissed by the court. Click here for English Translation Click here for other translation ... Read more